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Flashcards in Blood Deck (27):
1

Liquid component of blood

Plasma: has clotting factors and fibrinogen

Serum: plasma minus clotting factors (still contains other proteins NOT used in blood clotting: complement, antibodies, etc?)

2


Cellular component of blood


Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

3


What are the functions of the liquid component of blood?


Deliver nutrients to tissues

Remove waste (via kidney)

Detoxify chemicals (via liver)

Bring clotting proteins to sites of injury

Albumin maintains osmotic pressure

4

Examples of how blood is a good fluid to check for organ function


1) If cells of organ damaged, they'll release enzymes and things they're not supposed to and you'll see them in the blood

2) Excess waste products in blood suggests kidneys aren't functioning properly

5

Describe hemoglobin molecule


"Globin" is 2 alpha and 2 beta protein chains

"Heme" is porphyrin ring and iron

6

Are RBCs and hemoglobin destroyed?


RBC destroyed: eaten by macrophages in spleen after 120 days

Porphyrin destroyed: degraded into bilirubin and excreted

"Globin" broken down and AAs re-used

Iron scavenged by macrophages and re-used

7

What does increased bilirubin (seen clinically as jaundice) indicate?


Increased hemolysis (destruction of RBCs); see yellow plasma in hematocrit too

Or, liver problem preventing excretion into bile

8

What do common myeloid stem cells give rise to?

Basophils

Eosinophils

Neutrophils

Monocytes

RBCs

Platelets

9

What do common lymphoid stem cells give rise to?


Plasma cells

NK cells

T cells

10

How does knowing circulation time of different cells help us?


Decreased levels of specific cells occur at different times depending on how often they're replenished, and this can help us determine when a pathological process began

Neutrophils: 5-7 hours

Platelets: 10-12 days

RBCs: 120 days

Lymphocytes: months to years

 

11

Neutrophil


Defends agains bacteria

Stains between pink and blue

Nucleus broken into 3 segments

PMN

12

Lymphocyte


Defend against viruses and foreign cells

Make antibodies that attack bacteria

Large round nucleus

13

Monocyte


Phagocytose organisms

Work best by entering tissues and differentiating into dendritic cells or macrophages that present antigens to T cells

14

Eosinophil


Release histamine in allergic reactions

Defend against bacteria and parasites

Stain pink

15


Basophil


Release histamine in allergic reactions

Present antigen to some T cells

Stain blue

16

Which cells are granulocytes?


Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils

17


Erythrocyte (RBC) maturation


Cytoplasm (initially blue bc lots of RNA being made) surrounds large pink nucleus and nucleolus --> nucleus condenses, becomes pyknotic and gets extruded and mitochondria/other organelles degraded/extruded --> cytoplasm becomes more pink as hemoglobin made --> immature RBC called reticulocyte released into peripheral blood (<2% retic count) --> within 1-2 days, retic becomes mature RBC

18

White blood cell maturation


Begin with large nucleus --> cytoplasm develops granules --> nucleus forms long "band" --> nucleus breaks up and becomes fully segmented, creating mature PMN (neutrophil)

19


What is a "band cell"

Immature PMN (neutrophil)

Nucleus is not fully segmented and looks like a band

20


Platelet maturation


Begin as megakaryocytes --> undergo DNA replication without cell division to cause multinuclear cells --> cytoplasm of megakaryocyte fragments into platelets

21


Erythropoietin (EPO)


Growth factor that promotes RBC differentiation and maturation

Made in kidney

Used in blood doping and to treat anemia

22


G-CSF/GM-CSF


Growth factor that promotes granulocyte/monocyte differentiation and maturation

Used for people who need immune system boost

Made in bone marrow stroma

23


Thrombopoietin (TPO)


Growth factor that promotes megakaryocyte differentiation

Not used to increase platelets because doesn't help with megakaryocyte maturation

Made in many tissues

24


Where does hematopoiesis occur?


Adult: bone marrow

6-24 week fetus: liver and spleen

Embryo: yolk sac mesothelium

 

25


Where is the easiest place to get bone marrow from a patient and what does this tell you?


Iliac crest of the hip

Age 20 you have 20% fat and 80% cells

26

What are different ways to get cytopenia (too few cells)?


Problem of production: stem cell problem (pancytopenia), committed precursor problem, bone marrow environment problem

Problem of destruction: bleeding (RBCs), infection (neutrophils), cell destruction by autoantibodies or mechanical devices (RBCs, platelets), excess blood clotting (platelets)

27

What are different ways to get cytosis or cytophilia (too many cells)?


Secondary/physiological reason: infection (neutrophils), high altitude (RBCs)

Primary/uncontrolled production: mature cells continue to proliferate, neoplastic process in bone marrow (leukemia)