Liquid component of blood
Plasma: has clotting factors and fibrinogen
Serum: plasma minus clotting factors (still contains other proteins NOT used in blood clotting: complement, antibodies, etc?)
Cellular component of blood
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What are the functions of the liquid component of blood?
Deliver nutrients to tissues
Remove waste (via kidney)
Detoxify chemicals (via liver)
Bring clotting proteins to sites of injury
Albumin maintains osmotic pressure
Examples of how blood is a good fluid to check for organ function
1) If cells of organ damaged, they'll release enzymes and things they're not supposed to and you'll see them in the blood
2) Excess waste products in blood suggests kidneys aren't functioning properly
Describe hemoglobin molecule
"Globin" is 2 alpha and 2 beta protein chains
"Heme" is porphyrin ring and iron
Are RBCs and hemoglobin destroyed?
RBC destroyed: eaten by macrophages in spleen after 120 days
Porphyrin destroyed: degraded into bilirubin and excreted
"Globin" broken down and AAs re-used
Iron scavenged by macrophages and re-used
What does increased bilirubin (seen clinically as jaundice) indicate?
Increased hemolysis (destruction of RBCs); see yellow plasma in hematocrit too
Or, liver problem preventing excretion into bile
What do common myeloid stem cells give rise to?
What do common lymphoid stem cells give rise to?
How does knowing circulation time of different cells help us?
Decreased levels of specific cells occur at different times depending on how often they're replenished, and this can help us determine when a pathological process began
Neutrophils: 5-7 hours
Platelets: 10-12 days
RBCs: 120 days
Lymphocytes: months to years
Defends agains bacteria
Stains between pink and blue
Nucleus broken into 3 segments
Defend against viruses and foreign cells
Make antibodies that attack bacteria
Large round nucleus
Work best by entering tissues and differentiating into dendritic cells or macrophages that present antigens to T cells
Release histamine in allergic reactions
Defend against bacteria and parasites
Release histamine in allergic reactions
Present antigen to some T cells
Which cells are granulocytes?
Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
Erythrocyte (RBC) maturation
Cytoplasm (initially blue bc lots of RNA being made) surrounds large pink nucleus and nucleolus --> nucleus condenses, becomes pyknotic and gets extruded and mitochondria/other organelles degraded/extruded --> cytoplasm becomes more pink as hemoglobin made --> immature RBC called reticulocyte released into peripheral blood (<2% retic count) --> within 1-2 days, retic becomes mature RBC
White blood cell maturation
Begin with large nucleus --> cytoplasm develops granules --> nucleus forms long "band" --> nucleus breaks up and becomes fully segmented, creating mature PMN (neutrophil)
What is a "band cell"
Immature PMN (neutrophil)
Nucleus is not fully segmented and looks like a band
Begin as megakaryocytes --> undergo DNA replication without cell division to cause multinuclear cells --> cytoplasm of megakaryocyte fragments into platelets
Growth factor that promotes RBC differentiation and maturation
Made in kidney
Used in blood doping and to treat anemia
Growth factor that promotes granulocyte/monocyte differentiation and maturation
Used for people who need immune system boost
Made in bone marrow stroma
Growth factor that promotes megakaryocyte differentiation
Not used to increase platelets because doesn't help with megakaryocyte maturation
Made in many tissues
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
Adult: bone marrow
6-24 week fetus: liver and spleen
Embryo: yolk sac mesothelium
Where is the easiest place to get bone marrow from a patient and what does this tell you?
Iliac crest of the hip
Age 20 you have 20% fat and 80% cells
What are different ways to get cytopenia (too few cells)?
Problem of production: stem cell problem (pancytopenia), committed precursor problem, bone marrow environment problem
Problem of destruction: bleeding (RBCs), infection (neutrophils), cell destruction by autoantibodies or mechanical devices (RBCs, platelets), excess blood clotting (platelets)
What are different ways to get cytosis or cytophilia (too many cells)?
Secondary/physiological reason: infection (neutrophils), high altitude (RBCs)
Primary/uncontrolled production: mature cells continue to proliferate, neoplastic process in bone marrow (leukemia)