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Flashcards in Regulation of Inflammation Deck (18):
1


Histamine


Vasodilation (via releasing NO)

Smooth muscle contraction

Edema

Pain

Itching

(Bronchoconstriction but WAY less than LTC4, D4, E4)

Hypersecretion of mucus

Released: mast cells, basophils, platelets

2


Nitric Oxide (NO)

Vasodilation

AKA endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)

Other functions: antimicrobial bc forms ROSs; can be anti-inflammatory too

Released: endothelium, macrophages

3


Serotonin


Similar to histamine

Released by platelets

4


Plasma derived mediators of inflammation


Complement cascade proteins

Kinins

Coagulation cascade (proteases)

5

Vasoactive amines


Histamine and serotonin

Pre-formed in granules

Vasodilation, edema, itching, smooth muscle contraction, hypersecretion

Act on endothelium

6


Mast cell


Releases: histamine, PAF, leukotrienes, prostaglandins

Functions: edema, vasodilation, wound repair

7

How does NO mediate indirect vasodilation?


Histamine and bradykinin (released from mast cells) contract smooth muscle, but also release NO from endothelial cells to give net vasodilation

8


True or false: NO is only inflammatory


False, it can also be anti-inflammatory

Also produces ROS

9

What attracts leukocytes into inflamed tissues early on (first few hours)?

(Lipid/premade mediators)

Microbial peptides

C5a

LTB4

PAF

10

What attracts leukocytes into inflamed tissues later on (24 hours)?


(Chemokines/cytokines)

IL-8 (neutrophils; CXC)

MCP-1 (monocytes; CC)

Other chemokines

All these are slower to be produced but last longer than C5a, LTB4, PAF from early response

11

Mediators for Vasodilation


NO

Bradykinin and Histamine

PAF

PGI2

PGs (PGD2, PGF2)

 

12


Mediators for Edema (Vascular Permeability)


Histamine and Bradykinin

C3a

C5a

LTC4, D4, E4

PAF

(PGs potentiate)

Also, fibrinopeptides (products of fibrin breakdown during clot lysis)

13


Mediators for Pain


Bradykinin and Histamine

Substance P

Serotonin

(PGEs potentiate)

14


Mediators for Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Adhesion


Bacterial products

PAF

LTB4

C5a

IL-8

15


Mediators for Fever (and general acute phase reaction: fever, neutrophilia, somnolence, loss of appetite, low BP)


IL-1

TNF-alpha

IL-6

(PGEs in the brain)

16


NF-kB system


Pro-inflammatory

Leads to production of cytokines, adhesion molecules, antivirals, immunostimulation

Blocked by corticosteroids, salicylates and other anti-inflammatory drugs

17


Substance P

(Neuropeptides)

Pain

Vasodilation

Vascular permeability

Releases histamine from mast cells

18


What do prostaglandins do?


Pain

Fever

Edema/Vasodilation