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Flashcards in Risk (Stevens) Deck (11):
1

(Absolute) Risk

Proportion of people who experienced a given outcome

2


Relative Risk


Treatment Risk/Control Risk

3


Relative Risk Reduction


(Control Risk - Treatment Risk)/(Control Risk)

Intermediate estimate of risk reduction

4


Absolute Risk Reduction


Control Risk - Treatment Risk

Most conservative estimate of risk reduction (SMALL)

5

Number Needed to Treat (to get positive outcome)


1/Absolute Risk Reduction

6

Odds (in favor of patient living)


(# pts living within treatment)/(# pts NOT living within treatment)

 

Note: this is within a single treatment, looking at whether patients live or die

7

Odds Ratio of dying


(Treatment Odds of dying)/(Control Odds of dying)

Least conservative estimate of risk reduction (BIGGEST: "this treatment really lowers your risk!"...but not really)

8


Type I error

Alpha


Risk of randomly finding effect that is not actually there

False positive

"Statistical significance"

9


Type II error

Beta


Risk of randomly NOT finding an effect that is actually there

False negative

"Power" (1 - Type II error)

10


Systematic error


Due to bias, confounding, study design issues

11


Random error


Due to chance alone (Type I error and Type II error)