Blood and Tissue Parasites (Part I) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood and Tissue Parasites (Part I) Deck (39):
1

List four pathogenic amoebae.

Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegieria flowleri, and Sapphinia diploidea

2

List one pathogenic flagellates.

Trichomonas vaginalis

3

List three pathogenic Apicomplexa.

Babesia spp., Plasmodium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii

4

List two pathogenic trypanosomatids

Leishmania spp, and Trypanosoma spp.

5

Which species are known as "thorny or spiny amoeba"

Acanthamoeba species

6

Free living (out in nature)_____, many species cause human disease.

Amoebae; Acanthamoeba species

7

Acanthamoeba species: Incidence of ______

acanthamoebiasis

8

Acanthamoeba species is infection of what?

Cornea (keratitis)

9

Acanthamobea Species: Epidemiology and transmission

Variety of environmental habitats: "Contact lens cases" (soil, fresh, brackish, and sea water, sewage, swimming and medicinal pools; plants; human throats, nostrils) Enter through inhalation, the eye, or ulcerated/broken skin

10

Acanthamobea Species: Infectious form and found in tissue

Both cysts and trophs

11

List two most common infections of Acanthamoeba species.

Eye tissue-keratitis
Brain tissue- granulomatis amoebic encephalitis (GAE)

12

In Encephalitis (GAE), most cases have been found in what kind of people?

Immunocompromised people

13

In Encephalitis (GAE), ______ enter through breaks in skin or upper respiratory tract, migrate to CNS, causes neuronal damage and death.

Trophs

14

Describe two types of diagnosis of Acanthamoeba species through microscope from tissue (such as eye,brain, lesion material).

Characteristic of Cysts- double walled in tissue
Characterstic of Troph- with bull's eye nucleus

15

Acanthamobea Species: geographic distribution.

Worldwide

16

Balamuthia mandrillaris is _____ amoeba

Free living but not much is known about its habitat

17

Balamuthia mandrillaris: Geographic distrbution

Temperate regions of globe

18

Balamuthia mandrillaris: Cause of____

GAE

19

Balamuthia mandrillaris: incidence of_____

balamuthiasis

20

Balamuthia mandrillaris: Transmission through___

Enter through skin wounds or inhaling DUST.

21

Balamuthia mandrillaris: infectious forms and found in tissue

Both cyst and trophs forms and found in tissue- just like Acanthamobea

22

What type of people are at risk for Balamuthia mandrillaris GAE?

Cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent people

23

Balamuthia mandrillaris: Diagnosis

Characteristic of Cysts- double walled in tissue;Troph- with bull's eye nucleus

24

How can we distinguish Balamuthia mandrillaris from Acanthamoba since they have identical diagnosis.

Distinguish using PCR and immunofluorescence (IFA)

25

Where would you find Neagleria flowleri amoeba?

Free-living amoeba; They prefer warm water so lakes, ponds, swimming pools, air conditioner cooling towers, tap water, etc.

26

Neagleria flowleri: Geographic distribution

presumably worldwide

27

Neagleria flowleri: causes____-

Primary amoebic meningoenecephalitis (PAM)

28

Neagleria flowleri: Infectious form

Troph

29

Neagleria flowleri: Diagnosis through microscope

Characteristic trophs in brain and CSF: NO CYST form in hosts

30

Neagleria flowleri: Symptoms

acute onset of frontal headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting (Phase1); stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, coma, and death (phase2); from exposure to death 1-12days

31

Which pathogenic flagellates is sexually transmitted protozan?

Trichomonas vaginalis

32

This is most common pathogenic protozoan in industrialized counties

Trichomonas vaginalis

33

Trichomonas vaginalis: Incidence of _____

Trichomoniasis; very common, more prevalent among people with multiple sex partner

34

Trichomonas vaginalis: Epidemiology and transmission

-Reside in lower GU tract of females, urethra and prostate of males
-Sexual intercourse is primary means of transmission

35

Trichomonas vaginalis: Life cycle

Trophozoites are the only known form; it replicates on surfaces of tissue

36

Trichomonas vaginalis: symptoms in males

usually asymptomatic, but can develop urethritis, epididymitis and or prostatitis

37

Trichomonas vaginalis: symptoms in females

Frothy, green yellow, foul smelling vaginal discharge, itching and burning especially during sex, vaginitis, urethritis, and cervicitis (strawberry cervix)

38

Trichomonas vaginalis: Describe diagnosis through molecular tests

-DNA probe- e.g, BD Affrim VPIII microbial ID test
-Nucleic acid amplification test-e.g. Gen-probe APTIMA

39

Trichomonas vaginalis: Describe diagnosis through microscopy

-Demonstrate motile trophs in vaginal secretion or urine
-Demonstrate trophs in stained smears