Flashcards in Blood and Tissue Parasites (Part I) Deck (39):
List four pathogenic amoebae.
Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegieria flowleri, and Sapphinia diploidea
List one pathogenic flagellates.
List three pathogenic Apicomplexa.
Babesia spp., Plasmodium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii
List two pathogenic trypanosomatids
Leishmania spp, and Trypanosoma spp.
Which species are known as "thorny or spiny amoeba"
Free living (out in nature)_____, many species cause human disease.
Amoebae; Acanthamoeba species
Acanthamoeba species: Incidence of ______
Acanthamoeba species is infection of what?
Acanthamobea Species: Epidemiology and transmission
Variety of environmental habitats: "Contact lens cases" (soil, fresh, brackish, and sea water, sewage, swimming and medicinal pools; plants; human throats, nostrils) Enter through inhalation, the eye, or ulcerated/broken skin
Acanthamobea Species: Infectious form and found in tissue
Both cysts and trophs
List two most common infections of Acanthamoeba species.
Brain tissue- granulomatis amoebic encephalitis (GAE)
In Encephalitis (GAE), most cases have been found in what kind of people?
In Encephalitis (GAE), ______ enter through breaks in skin or upper respiratory tract, migrate to CNS, causes neuronal damage and death.
Describe two types of diagnosis of Acanthamoeba species through microscope from tissue (such as eye,brain, lesion material).
Characteristic of Cysts- double walled in tissue
Characterstic of Troph- with bull's eye nucleus
Acanthamobea Species: geographic distribution.
Balamuthia mandrillaris is _____ amoeba
Free living but not much is known about its habitat
Balamuthia mandrillaris: Geographic distrbution
Temperate regions of globe
Balamuthia mandrillaris: Cause of____
Balamuthia mandrillaris: incidence of_____
Balamuthia mandrillaris: Transmission through___
Enter through skin wounds or inhaling DUST.
Balamuthia mandrillaris: infectious forms and found in tissue
Both cyst and trophs forms and found in tissue- just like Acanthamobea
What type of people are at risk for Balamuthia mandrillaris GAE?
Cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent people
Balamuthia mandrillaris: Diagnosis
Characteristic of Cysts- double walled in tissue;Troph- with bull's eye nucleus
How can we distinguish Balamuthia mandrillaris from Acanthamoba since they have identical diagnosis.
Distinguish using PCR and immunofluorescence (IFA)
Where would you find Neagleria flowleri amoeba?
Free-living amoeba; They prefer warm water so lakes, ponds, swimming pools, air conditioner cooling towers, tap water, etc.
Neagleria flowleri: Geographic distribution
Neagleria flowleri: causes____-
Primary amoebic meningoenecephalitis (PAM)
Neagleria flowleri: Infectious form
Neagleria flowleri: Diagnosis through microscope
Characteristic trophs in brain and CSF: NO CYST form in hosts
Neagleria flowleri: Symptoms
acute onset of frontal headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting (Phase1); stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, coma, and death (phase2); from exposure to death 1-12days
Which pathogenic flagellates is sexually transmitted protozan?
This is most common pathogenic protozoan in industrialized counties
Trichomonas vaginalis: Incidence of _____
Trichomoniasis; very common, more prevalent among people with multiple sex partner
Trichomonas vaginalis: Epidemiology and transmission
-Reside in lower GU tract of females, urethra and prostate of males
-Sexual intercourse is primary means of transmission
Trichomonas vaginalis: Life cycle
Trophozoites are the only known form; it replicates on surfaces of tissue
Trichomonas vaginalis: symptoms in males
usually asymptomatic, but can develop urethritis, epididymitis and or prostatitis
Trichomonas vaginalis: symptoms in females
Frothy, green yellow, foul smelling vaginal discharge, itching and burning especially during sex, vaginitis, urethritis, and cervicitis (strawberry cervix)
Trichomonas vaginalis: Describe diagnosis through molecular tests
-DNA probe- e.g, BD Affrim VPIII microbial ID test
-Nucleic acid amplification test-e.g. Gen-probe APTIMA