Dematiaceous Fungi Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dematiaceous Fungi Deck (31):
1

dark or black

melanized

2

Reverse of colony is dark or black (front may vary)

dematiaceous

3

Infection with black molds

phaeohyphomycosis

4

Chronic subcutaneous skin condition with cauliflower-like growths; always caused by dematiaceous fungi

chromomycosis/chromoblastomycosis

5

Chronic granulomatous infection; usually at site of inoculation; swollen tissue with draining sinus tracts (grainy discharge); invasive into the bone

mycetoma

6

Inflammation of the cornea of the eye caused by many different bacteria, yeast, molds, parasites,

keratitis

7

Mycetoma agent of infection by bacteria (gram positive bacilli); branching, filamentous

actinomycotic

8

Agent of mycetoma by fungi; often dematiaceous fungi (BLACK granules); less often non-dematiaceous (WHITE granules)

eumycotic

9

("copper pennies") in tissue diagnostic for chromoblastomycosis

medlar (or sclerotic or muriform) bodies

10

Most common organism that cause tinea nigra

Hortaea werneckii

11

Most common organism that causes black piedra

Piedraia hortae

12

Most common organism that causes chromoblastomycosis

Slow growing dematiaceous fungi:
- Fonsecaea
- Phialophora
- Cladophialophora

13

Most common organism that causes white grain mycetoma

Pseudallescheria boydii, Fusarium and others

14

Most common organism that causes black grain mycetoma

Exophiala and others

15

Most common organism that causes actinomycotic mycetoma

Partially Acid Fast: Nocardia, Rhodococcus and others
Nonacid-fast: Streptomyces, Actinomadura

16

Most common organism that causes cerebral phaeohyphomycosis

Cladophialophora bantiana (leading cause in immunoCOMPETENT individual)
- Bacterial brain infections are MUCH more common

17

Clinical manifestations involved in tinea nigra

Dark patches on skin, usually palms of hands, soles of feet; can resemble malignant melanoma

18

Clinical manifestations involved in black piedra

Black nodules on hair (any body part)

19

Clinical manifestations involved in chromomycosis

cauliflower-like growths; Sclerotic bodies ("copper pennies") in tissue

20

Clinical manifestations involved in mycetoma

Swollen tissue with draining sinus tracts (purulent, grainy discharge); sclerotia (also known as granules or grains)

21

Two dematiaceous fungi that are "rapid" growers

Curvularia and Alternaria

22

What is the criteria for slow growers and rapid growers?

Rapid: <7 days
Slow: may take weeks to grow (10-14 days)

23

How is man usually infected?

accidentally infected from traumatic injury, inhalation in immunocompromised people (usually involve lower extremities)

24

What is the gold standard for diagnosing Melanized (Dematiaceous) Fungi?

Culture

25

What are considered cutaneous (superficial) infections?

- Tinea nigra
- Black piedra
- White piedra

26

Subcutaneous infections are usually the result of traumatic inoculation to the deep layers of the skin. What are two examples of this type of infection?

1. Chromoblastomycosis (Chromomycosis)
2. Mycetoma

27

Where are Chromomycosis infections most commonly seen?

tropic or subtropic climates (S. America) but cases seen in U.S.

28

What are diagnostic for chomoblastomycosis?

Sclerotic bodies (copper pennies) in tissue (also known as medlar or muriform bodies

29

What is chomoblastomycosis usually caused by?

slow-growing dematiaceous fungi

30

What is important to culture in a Mycetoma?

Biopsy (culture the grains)

31

Mycotic keratitis is often from what?

traumatic injury, contact lens use, surgery