Blood and Tissue Parasites (part II) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood and Tissue Parasites (part II) Deck (47):
1

Babesia species: List four species which are known human pathogens

Theileria (Babesia) microti
Babesia divergens
B.ducani
Babesia spp. MO-1

2

Most common Babesia specie which is found in the Northeast USA, Nantucket island.

Theileria (Babesia) microti

3

Babesia species: Distribution

World wide
Babesia divergens (mainly Europe)
B.ducani (western USA)
Babesia spp. MO-1 (Midwerstern USA)

4

Babesia species: Incidence of _____

babesiosis (US) (most cases in New England, Minnesota, and Wisconsin)

5

Babesia species: Epidemiology

Ticks bites (deer tick and brown dog tick) transmit the parasite to human or mouse hots

6

Babesia species: Host in natures

Use white footed mice and ticks as hosts

7

Babesia species: Transmission

-Transmission has also occurred through blood transfusions!!!!! (2 cases in Indiana-both recipients died)
-Vertical transmission (going from mom to baby)has also occurred

8

Babesia species: Infectious form

merozoite form; Maltese cross

9

Babesia species: Symptoms

most asymptomatic; having no spleen makes a person more prone to severe or fatal disease

10

Babesia species: Diagnosis thorugh microscope

-Examination of a Giemsa or Wright -giemsa stained blood smear
-Presence of ring form and characteristic merozoite in and outside of red cells; multiple rings and merozoites per cell

11

Babesia species: Two other methods used in diagnosis

IFA-for detection of antibodies to Bebesia species
Molecular method-real time PCR for species which can speciate the organisms

12

How can we distinguish Bebesia spp. from Plasmodium spp.?

Clinical and travel histories; Bebesia produces racket shaped merozoites; rings and merozoite are only seen in babesiosis; there are extracellular parasites seen in babesiosis

13

Plasmodium species: causative agents of ____

malaria

14

Plasmodium species: ____borne protoza

Mosquito

15

List five different species of Plasmodium that are known to cause malaria in humans

-P.falciparum, P. malariae, P.ovale, P.vivax, P. knowlesi. (first four most common)

16

Plasmodium species: distribution

Tropical and subtropical regions--mostly in Africa

17

Plasmodium species: incidence of _____

Malaria

18

Plasmodium species: complete life cycle requires two hots:_____ & _____

mosquitoes and humans

19

Plasmodium species: What type of mosquitoes found?

Anopheles species mosquitoes

20

P.falciparum: Epidemiology and incidence

Widespread, globally; predominant cause

21

P. malariae: Epidemiology and incidence

Widespread, globally; less frequently seen causes

22

P. ovale: Epidemiology and incidence

predominately in sub-Saharan Africa, other areas also

23

P.vivax: Epidemiology and incidence

wide range than P.ovale, and their niches overlap; second most predominant cause

24

P.knowlesi: Epidemiology and incidence

Southeast Asia; very rare cause

25

Plasmodium species: two types of cycles

Exo-erythrocytic (occurs in liver
Erythrocytic

26

Plasmodium species: Important notes about P.ovale and P.vivax in life cycle.

They both can stay dormant in liver---> diseae can relapse weeks or years later.
RMR: with P.ovale and P.vivaz "IT's not OVer!!

27

Plasmodium species: symptoms

-Blackwater fever: intravascular hemolysis, dark urine from Hgb; malaria caused by P.faciparum can be very dangerous!!
-(fever, chills, fatigue, muscle aches, joint aches, diarrhea, vomiting, neurologic change)

28

Plasmodium species: Types of blood smears used for examination

-Examination of a Giemsa or Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears

29

Plasmodium species: Things to look for when examining the stained blood smears.

-Presence of ring forms, schizonts, gametocytes
-Chuffner's dots in P.ovale & P.vivax
-Thin and thick smears should be looked at

30

Plasmodium species: two other methods for diagnosis

Molecular methods-PCR and Antigen detection-lateral flow test

31

Plasmodium species: microscopic exam can be fixed with _____.

Methanol-RBCs will not lyse

32

Plasmodium species: microscopic exam- why do we not fixed with methanol?

You need the RBCs to lyse

33

No Schuffner's stippling

P.falciparum and P.malariae

34

Infects normal sized or smaller than uninfected RBCs

P.falciparum

35

Primarily ring forms seen in RBCs (applique form) and Multiple rings/RBCs, often hanging off the edges.

P.falciparum

36

Gametocyte appearance of P.falciparum

Banana shaped

37

infects normal to slightly larger RBCs

P.malariae

38

May see band form trophozoites which looks like RBC is wearing a belt.

P.malariae

39

No stippling and may have few Schizonts usually arranged in a rosette. And Gametocytes are round; may have dark brown pigment

P.malariae

40

Infected RBCs larger than uninfected RBCs and RBCs are enlarged; many are fimbriated or round or oval

P.ovale

41

Schuffner's stippling present with granules are much larger and darker

P.ovale

42

Schizont (RBC in which parasites are undergoing asexual reproduction) contains 6-14 merozoites

P.ovale

43

Often infects larger sized RBCs than uninfected RBCs and Schuffner's stippling present

P.vivax

44

Schizont is larger and contains 12-24 merozoites

P.vivax

45

Which organisms have growing trophs (rings), and gametocytes?

All plasmodium species

46

Plasmodium species: Diagnosis through microscope

-Must distinguish plasmodium spp from babesia spp
-p.knowlesi, looks very similar to P.falciparum-PCR can discriminate the two

47

Plasmodium knowelsi and P.falciparum look very smiliar how can we differentiate?

PCR can discriminate the two