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Flashcards in BN2 Deck (73):
1

What term describes a substance that kills or inhibits bacterial growth?

Antibacterial

2

What term describes an agent that inhibits but does not kill microorganisms

Antiseptic

3

What term describes the absence of pathogenic microorganisms?

Asepsis

4

What term refers to the practices/procedures that assist in reducing the risk of infectious materials on an item or surface?

Aseptic technique

5

What term describes a single celled microorganisms that multiply rapidly?

Bacteria

6

What term describes the presence or anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface?

Contaminated

7

What term describes an agent that kills microorganisms but not their spores?

Disinfectant

8

What term describes tiny, primitive organisms that contain no chlorophyll?

Fungi

9

What term describes an infection that is acquired in a hospital setting?

Health Care Associated infection

10

What term describes a disease caused by an invasion of pathogenic microorganisms?

Infection

11

What term describes the procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms?

Medical asepsis

12

What term describes a tiny, living animal or plant that can only be seen with a microscope?

Microorganisms

13

What term refers to microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease producing microorganisms and provide natural immunity against certain infections?

Normal flora

14

What term refers to microorganisms that cause infection and contagious disease?

Pathogen or Infectious agent

15

What term refers to one celled animals that can infect the blood, brain, intestines and other body areas?

Protozoa

16

What term refers to microorganisms that are transmitted to humans by the bites of lice, ticks and fleas and act as vectors?

Rickettsiae

17

What term refers to complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms including spores?

Sterilization

18

What term refers to cleaning of a patient's contaminated equipment and supplies after discharge?

Terminal Disinfection

19

What term describes an approach to infection control in which all human blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for blood-borne pathogens?

Universal Precautions

20

What term describes an extremely small infectious agent that can be seen with an electron microscope. They grow in living cells and cause many diseases such as the common cold?

Viruses

21

What does OSHA stand for?

Occupational Safety & Health Administration

22

What are the common infections agents?

Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa
Rickettsiae
Fungi
Helminthes

23

What are the links in the chain of infection?

Infectious agent, Reservoir, Portal of Exit, Mode of transmission, Portal of Entry, Susceptible Host

24

Who is responsible for identifying and preparing a list of diseases that must be reported under federal, state and local laws?

Public Health

25

Who is responsible for receiving all reports concerning infectious and communicable exposure, and initiating precautions for the type of organism present?

Infection Control Practitioner

26

What are the two types of aseptic technique?

Medical asepsis and Surgical Asepsis

27

What aseptic technique is known as the clean technique/

Medical asepsis

28

What type of contact occurs person to person or physical contact between sources and susceptible host (e.g. fecal, oral)?

Direct

29

What type of contact involves contact with contaminated inanimate objects (e.g. needles, utensils, hospital equipment)?

Indirect

30

What patients are at risk for HAIs?

Pt's with surgical incisions, artificial airways, urinary catheters, and IV lines

31

What is the main reason why Patients get HAIs?

medical personal did not perform proper hand washing or did not wash between patients

32

What are some examples of droplet transmission?

projections from nasal mucosa, mouth, or conjunctiva

33

What are examples of airborne transmissions?

coughing and sneezing

34

In regards to the chain of infection, what are some ways infections are transmitted?

Touch/contact, vector, droplet, airborne

35

What is the most effective barrier to infection?

Intact skin

36

What are some conditions that make someone a susceptible host?

age, weak state of health, broken skin

37

What actions should be taken if exposed to a possible communicable disease?

Notify immediate supervisor
Seek proper Medical evaluation
Notify immediate supervisor and public health of any duty restrictions or limitations

38

What are the four rules of surgical asepsis?

Know what is sterile
Know what is not sterile
Separate sterile from unsterile
Remedy contamination immediately

39

a ____ inch margin around the the edge of a sterile field is considered contaminated

1

40

How long are paper wrapped sterile packs good for?

30 days

41

Can sterility be indefinite if sealed in a plastic outer wrapper?

yes, follow local policy

42

What do thermal/chemical indicators actually indicate?

only that the instruments were exposed to the sterilizing process, does not indicate that they are stills sterile

43

What is the most common type of chemical indicator for sterility?

tape

44

What is the only true indicator of sterility?

biological testing

45

What are the four most common methods of sterilization?

moist heat
Ethylene Oxide (ETO)
Hydrogen Peroxide Plasma
Chemical

46

What type of sterilization involves steam and an autoclave?

Moist heat

47

What type of sterilization destroys microorganisms and spores, is used for heat sensitive items where good penetration is essential and the gas is toxic so aeration is needed?

Ethylene Oxide

48

What type of sterilization uses oxidizing properties allow for the destruction of a wide range of pathogens and is used on heat sensitive items?

Hydrogen peroxide Plasma

49

What type of sterilization is done either by exposure to a toxic gas or prolonged immersion in a chemical disinfectant?

Chemical

50

When cleaning instruments prior to sterilization what are some common methods?

Enzymatic solutions
1:10 chlorine bleach

51

What type of bag need to be used to dispose of biohazardous waste?

impermeable red, plastic bag labeled with the date and the word "biohazard" or "medical waste"

52

When washing hands, what are the two cleansing agents?

Soap/detergent - aids in the removal of organisms
Antibacterial - kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms

53

What are the steps when sterilizing equipment?

Decontaminate instruments manually
Disinfect instruments after cleaning
Prepare for Sterilization after cleaning
Dispose of Contaminated materials

54

Why is it important to decontaminate instruments manually before sterilizing?

Organic material can be backed on which would destroy the instrument

55

When decontaminating instruments how should they be sorted?

by type and weight

56

After cleaning instruments, how do you prepare them for sterilization?

Lay open on absorbent pad, allow to dry, place in bin designated for central sterile supply and complete paperwork

57

When washing hands, what do you use to clean fingernails?

Orangewood stick

58

What term describes direct contact with another persons's body fluid or any item contaminated with another person's body fluids?

Blood Borne Pathogen exposure

59

What term describes an illness that is easily spread to others?

Contagious Disease

60

What term describes a method of spreading pathogens that occurs when an uninfected person gets infected by touching or being near someone who is infected?

Direct Contact

61

What term describes removing a bag of contaminated items from an isolation room by placing it in another clean bag held by someone outside the room?

Double bagging

62

What term describes a patient with impaired skin integrity or with a compromised immune system who has a greater probability of acquiring an infection?

Highly Susceptible patient

63

What term describes a route of spreading pathogens by touching contaminated objects?

Indirect contact

64

What term describes the confinement of pathogens to a given area to prevent their spread?

Isolation

65

Sharps containers should be replaced when how full?

3 quarters full

66

What are the two tiers of isolation developed by the CDC?

Tier 1: Standard Precautions, Tier 2: Isolation precautions

67

What are the 4 types of isolation?

Airborne, Droplet, Contact, and Protective

68

In what instance does the CDC recommend double bagging?

If it is impossible to prevent contamination of the bag's outer surface

69

How many people does it take to double bag?

2

70

What is the first step in initiating patient isolation?

Place the patient in the room designated for isolation. Rational is you want to limit the time a person with a communicable disease is exposed to the ward floor.

71

Is the isolation cart placed outside or inside the patient's room?

outside

72

How may a patient in isolation feel?

Unclean, rejected, lonely or guilty

73

Why shouldn't rush through care of a patient who is in isolation?

they will feel rejected