Flashcards in HM funds. CBRNE Deck (48):
What is a systemic poison and casualty producing agent that interferes with vital enzyme systems of the body?
What is an agent that causes extensive damage to alveolar tissue, resulting in severe pulmonary edema?
What is the term described by the interference with normal transmission of nerve impulses in the parasympathetic and autonomic nervous system?
What term describes temporary blindness, usually lasting for 20-30 minutes, after looking in the general direction of a nuclear blast?
What agents are comprised mainly of psycho chemicals, produce mental confusion and an inability to function intelligently?
What term describes local irritants that act primarily on the eyes?
What term describes agents that result in a ten percent or greater death rate among casualties?
What agents interfere with normal transmission of nerve impulses in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system?
What agents produce mental confusion and an inability to function intelligently?
What term describes spontaneous and instantaneous decomposition of the nucleus of an unstable atom with the accompanying emission of a particle, a gamma ray or both?
What term refers to flash burns to the eyes after looking directly at the fireball created from a nuclear explosion. When the burn heals, the destroyed retinal tissue is replaced by scar tissue and will cause blind or partially blind areas in the visual field?
Retinal flash burn
What chemical agent did Syria use against rebel forces in 2013?
How many people were killed or infected in the 2001 Anthrax attacks?
5 killed 17 infected
What are some indications that a chemical attack has occurred?
Rapid onset of similar symptoms in a large group of people.
Public exhibition of unusual behavior.
Unusual fog, clouds, mist, especially indoors
Unexplained pools of liquid, dead animals or insects.
Abandoned spraying devices, canisters, packages
What are some ways that chemical agents are classified?
Lethal vs incapacitating vs riot control
lethal vs non-lethal.
Persistent vs non-persistent
Which chemical agents have a slow effect and which have a fast effect?
Slow: Chocking, blister, and nettle
Fast: Blood and nerve
What are the nerve agents?
How many people were killed in the Tokyo Subway Sarin attacks?
12 with thousands injured.
What are some characteristics of nerve agents?
Tasteless, odorless to sweet, colorless to light brown liquid
rapidly penetrate materials as a liquid or vapor
Rate of action is very rapid with inhalation and slow through absorption
Lethal in decontamination is not done in time
What are symptoms of moderate nerve agent exposure?
coughing, wheezing, miosis, vomiting, diaphragmatic spasm, muscles spasm, incontinence, LOC, seizure or flaccid paralysis
What odor does sulfur mustard have?
Garlic or horseradish
What odor does Nitrogen mustard have?
Slightly fishy to no odor
what odor does Lewisite and Phosgene oxime have?
L - Fruity or geranium
CX - disagreeable odor
What are some characteristics of Blister agents?
Slow acting, yellow-brown viscous liquid, persistent, can linger on inorganic material for weeks
vapors usually not visible
What are symptoms of Blister agent exposure?
Large firm walled, fluid filled blisters within 24 hours.
Conjunctivitis, belpharospasm and functional blindness within hours.
Respiratory distress, obstruction, possible pulmonarry edema
Burns in warm/moist, sweaty areas of the body.
May cause temporary blindness
What are some characteristics of Blood agents?
Gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures
Fast acting - inhibits cellular respiration
Odor: AC - Faint bitter almond CK - Irritating odor
What are the Blood agents?
Hydrogen Cyanide (AC)
Cyanogen chloride (CK)
What are some symptoms of blood agents?
General weakness and nausea
Headache, muscle paralysis, convulsions, may be flushed
Rate of action is immediate
Lethal if high concentration is inhaled
What are the choking agents?
What are some characteristics of choking agents?
Colorless to yellow-green, dense gas cloud.
Odor of new mown hay or grass
Rate of action is slow
Heavier than air; tends to lie low to the ground
Symptoms of choking agents?
Delayed onset of most symptoms
Rapid onset of larygnospasm/brochospasm in about 20% of patients
Chest tightness, dysphasia
Tachypnea, dyspnea, wheezing
Pulmonary edema secondary to alveolar/capillary membrane injury
Causes damage to the eyes and throat
What are the bacterial agents?
Bacillus Anthracis (antrhax)
Francisell Tularensis (Tularemia)
What are the Viral Agents?
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
What are the three clinical forms of anthrax?
symptoms of cutaneous anthrax?
Local edema followed by macule, papule, pulcer, eschar, lyphangitis, painful lymphadenopathy and ultimately systemic symptoms.
Symptoms of GI anthrax?
upper - oral or esophageal ulcer, followed by regional LAD, edema, and sepsis; may affect airway
Lower - Nausea, vomiting, malaise, bloody diarrhea, sepsis, massive ascites in some cases
Symptoms on inhalation anthrax?
Gradual nonspecific onset of fever, malaise and nonproductive cough
Followed by abrupt onset of dyspnea, stridor, diaphoresis, and cyanosis. Septicemia shock and death within 24-36 hours
What are some examples of VHF?
Marburg and Ebola
Dengue and yellow fever
Who is credited with the invention of smallpox vaccine?
Edward Jenner in the 1790 is credited with developing vaccine, noticed that milkmaids never contracted smallpox but did catch the milder cowpox, he took the discharge from a mildmaids lesions who was infected with cowpox and injected into an 8 year old kid, few weeks later exposed the kid to smallpox and the kid did not catch it
What are some characteristics of a nuclear blast?
Bright intense flash of light
Shock wave and earth tremors
What high yield explosives are highly available?
What does RDX stand for?
Research Development Explosive
What high yield explosives have a low availability?
_________ blast effects are the result of over pressurization secondary to detonation
What is the most vulnerable part of the body susceptible to primary blasts?
_______ blast injuries are the result of blunt and/or penetrating trauma from airborne debris.
__________ blast effects occurs when victim is propelled airborne by forces of the primary blast?