Flashcards in IN2 Specimen Collection Deck (61):
What term describes tiny tube shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or kidney cells found in the urine?
Casts * Presence is always an abnormal finding and indicates renal alterations
What term measures microscopic amounts of blood in feces?
Fecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) also known as a guaiac or hemoccult
What term describes the study of blood and its components?
What term describes the passage of blood in the feces?
What is found in the urine when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates and begins to breakdown fats and fatty acids to use as fuel?
What term describes dark, tarry stool due to upper GI bleed?
the presence of what substance in the urine indicates UTI?
What term means not present in macrospic amounts?
What term means relating to, involving, or located in the region of the kidneys?
What term describes the weight or degree of concentration of a substance compared with an equal volume of H2O?
What term describes an inflammatory sore throat caused by streptococcal bacteria marked by fever, fatigue and toxemia?
What region of the anatomy is marked from the esophagus to the duodenum?
presence of substance in urine
routine and microscpic
Culture and Sensitivity
What are some characteristics of normal urine?
Clear-transparent, pale yellow to amber, faint odor, does not contain bacteria
What color can urine with gross blood appear?
What does dark red blood in urine indicate?
bleeding in the kidneys or ureters
What does bright red blood in the urine indicate?
bleeding form the bladder or urethra
What can turn urine blue?
What can turn urine orange?
what might a sweet or fruity odor to the urine indicate?
Acetone or acetonaceitc acid as seen in diabetes or starvation
What should you do when noticing any abnormal urine in a patient?
Report to nurse and record on SF 510
What are the various ways urine is collected?
Random, clean catch, sterile and timed
What should you document after obtaining a urine specimen?
Description of urine, type of test, Disposition of specimen
What is clean-catch urine used for?
collection of C&S
What is the lab request form?
How would you instruct the female patient to cleanse genitalia for clean catch urine collection?
Separate labia with thumb and forefinger on non-dominant hand to expose meatus, using a front to back stroke wipe the left than right side followed by the center using a fresh swab each time prevent contamination of genital area with fecal matter
How would you instruct the male patient to cleanse the genitalia for the clean catch urine collection?
Retract foreskin, hold penis with one hand and using a circular motion, cleanse the end of the penis from urethral opening working outward
How much urine should be collected when obtaining a C&S specimen?
30-60ml, minimum of 15ml
When collecting a 24 hour urine do you keep the first morning void?
no it is to be discarded
What are the component of a UA?
Specific gravity, glucose, acetone/ketones, nitrite, blood and protein
What is the most reliable way to collect urine for UA?
void, discard the collect sample 30-45 minutes later, more accurate measure of kidney's recent filtration ability
What is the normal range for SP?
What SP value indicates concentrated urine?
1.025 *may indicate dehyrdation or reduced renal flow
What SP value indicates diluted urine?
less than 1.005 *may indicate glomerulonephritis, or over hydration
what is the normal glucose value on a UA?
What is the normal actone/ketone value of a UA?
What is the normal nitrite value of a UA?
What is the normal blood values on a UA?
What are some causes of proteinuria?
Renal disorders and preeclampsia
What percentage of normal stool is made of water?
What is the normal characteristics of stool?
Brown color, formed/semi-solid mass consistency,
What may white or clay colored stool indicate?
absence of bile - gallbladder or liver disease
What may dark tarry stool indicate?
Upper GI bleed form Peptic ulcer
What might bright red blood in stool indicate?
hemorrhoids or diverticulitis
What may pale with fat stools indicate?
malabsorbtion of fat
What may translucent mucus in stool indicate?
spastic constipation, colitis, excessive straining
What may blood mucus in stool indicate?
inflammation and infection
How much stool is needed for a specimen?
1 inch of formed stool or 15-30 ml of diarrhea
When documenting stool specimen collection what should you include on the nursing note?
color, characteristic and amount of stool, test requested, disposition of specimen
How long should you wait before applying developer onto a hemoccult slide?
How many drops of developer are applied to the hemoccult slide?
2 on each smear and 1 drop on the center
Waht indicates a positive hemoccult?
bluish ring surrounding specimen
When obtaining a throat culture how should go about swabbing the throat?
gently but quickly swab tonsillar area side to side making contact with inflamed or purulent sites, carefully withdraw without touching oral structures
When collecting a sputum culture, how much should you have the patient cough up?
keep coughing until 2-10 ml of sputum has been collected