IN2 Specimen Collection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IN2 Specimen Collection Deck (61):
1

What term describes tiny tube shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or kidney cells found in the urine?

Casts * Presence is always an abnormal finding and indicates renal alterations

2

What term measures microscopic amounts of blood in feces?

Fecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) also known as a guaiac or hemoccult

3

What term describes the study of blood and its components?

Hematology

4

What term describes the passage of blood in the feces?

Hematochezia

5

What is found in the urine when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates and begins to breakdown fats and fatty acids to use as fuel?

Ketones

6

What term describes dark, tarry stool due to upper GI bleed?

melena

7

the presence of what substance in the urine indicates UTI?

Nitrite

8

What term means not present in macrospic amounts?

Occult

9

What term means relating to, involving, or located in the region of the kidneys?

Renal

10

What term describes the weight or degree of concentration of a substance compared with an equal volume of H2O?

Specific Gravity

11

What term describes an inflammatory sore throat caused by streptococcal bacteria marked by fever, fatigue and toxemia?

Strep throat

12

What region of the anatomy is marked from the esophagus to the duodenum?

Upper GI

13

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

14

nephr/o

kidney

15

ur/o

urine

16

uria

presence of substance in urine

17

R&M

routine and microscpic

18

C&S

Culture and Sensitivity

19

UA

urinalysis

20

What are some characteristics of normal urine?

Clear-transparent, pale yellow to amber, faint odor, does not contain bacteria

21

What color can urine with gross blood appear?

red/reddish brown

22

What does dark red blood in urine indicate?

bleeding in the kidneys or ureters

23

What does bright red blood in the urine indicate?

bleeding form the bladder or urethra

24

What can turn urine blue?

methylene blue

25

What can turn urine orange?

pyridium

26

what might a sweet or fruity odor to the urine indicate?

Acetone or acetonaceitc acid as seen in diabetes or starvation

27

What should you do when noticing any abnormal urine in a patient?

Report to nurse and record on SF 510

28

What are the various ways urine is collected?

Random, clean catch, sterile and timed

29

What should you document after obtaining a urine specimen?

Description of urine, type of test, Disposition of specimen

30

What is clean-catch urine used for?

collection of C&S

31

What is the lab request form?

SF553

32

How would you instruct the female patient to cleanse genitalia for clean catch urine collection?

Separate labia with thumb and forefinger on non-dominant hand to expose meatus, using a front to back stroke wipe the left than right side followed by the center using a fresh swab each time prevent contamination of genital area with fecal matter

33

How would you instruct the male patient to cleanse the genitalia for the clean catch urine collection?

Retract foreskin, hold penis with one hand and using a circular motion, cleanse the end of the penis from urethral opening working outward

34

How much urine should be collected when obtaining a C&S specimen?

30-60ml, minimum of 15ml

35

When collecting a 24 hour urine do you keep the first morning void?

no it is to be discarded

36

What are the component of a UA?

Specific gravity, glucose, acetone/ketones, nitrite, blood and protein

37

What is the most reliable way to collect urine for UA?

void, discard the collect sample 30-45 minutes later, more accurate measure of kidney's recent filtration ability

38

What is the normal range for SP?

1.005-1.030

39

What SP value indicates concentrated urine?

1.025 *may indicate dehyrdation or reduced renal flow

40

What SP value indicates diluted urine?

less than 1.005 *may indicate glomerulonephritis, or over hydration

41

what is the normal glucose value on a UA?

Negative

42

What is the normal actone/ketone value of a UA?

Negative

43

What is the normal nitrite value of a UA?

Negative

44

What is the normal blood values on a UA?

Negative

45

What are some causes of proteinuria?

Renal disorders and preeclampsia

46

What percentage of normal stool is made of water?

70%

47

What is the normal characteristics of stool?

Brown color, formed/semi-solid mass consistency,

48

What may white or clay colored stool indicate?

absence of bile - gallbladder or liver disease

49

What may dark tarry stool indicate?

Upper GI bleed form Peptic ulcer

50

What might bright red blood in stool indicate?

hemorrhoids or diverticulitis

51

What may pale with fat stools indicate?

malabsorbtion of fat

52

What may translucent mucus in stool indicate?

spastic constipation, colitis, excessive straining

53

What may blood mucus in stool indicate?

inflammation and infection

54

How much stool is needed for a specimen?

1 inch of formed stool or 15-30 ml of diarrhea

55

When documenting stool specimen collection what should you include on the nursing note?

color, characteristic and amount of stool, test requested, disposition of specimen

56

How long should you wait before applying developer onto a hemoccult slide?

3-5 minutes

57

How many drops of developer are applied to the hemoccult slide?

2 on each smear and 1 drop on the center

58

Waht indicates a positive hemoccult?

bluish ring surrounding specimen

59

When obtaining a throat culture how should go about swabbing the throat?

gently but quickly swab tonsillar area side to side making contact with inflamed or purulent sites, carefully withdraw without touching oral structures

60

When collecting a sputum culture, how much should you have the patient cough up?

keep coughing until 2-10 ml of sputum has been collected

61

In what type of urine study can you collect a virtually uncontaminated specimen for C&S?

Clean Catch/Midstream