Flashcards in IN2 IV Deck (69):
What term describes a place where whole blood or blood plasma is drawn, typed, processed, and stored under refrigeration for future use?
What term describes the transfer of human blood or its components from a donor to a recipient?
What term describes the classification of human blood cells to determine compatibility?
What term describes when fluid output exceeds fluid intake causing a decrease in the amount of fluid in body tissues?
What is a form of glucose found in human blood?
What term describes when fluid intake exceeds fluid output, causing body tissues to swell with fluid?
What is a substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electrical charge when in solution?
What term means via the veins?
What term describes a fine mesh filter in the drip chamber of an intravenous set used for blood transfusions.
Microfilter: Prevents blood clots from entering the circulatory system
What term describes a blood product with an extremely high proportion of red blood cells?
Packed red blood cells
What term describes the fluid part of blood?
What is any part of the minute, disc-like, colorless element of the blood that are essential for normal clotting?
What term means producing or produced by heat or fever?
What term means to transfer or to introduce blood, blood plasma into a vein?
What term describes blood for transfusion form which none of the elements have been removed?
What is a component of an intravenous set used for blood transfusions?
5% Dextrose in water
Sodium Chloride, Normal Saline
What term means to give a specified amount rapidly or all at once?
What term describes the rate the solution will be infused; unit of measure is gtts/min?
What term describes the manufacturer's certified flow rate of the tubing so that a certain number of drops equals 1mL?
What term describes the rate the solution will be infused?
Flow rate; unit of measure is mL/hr or gtts/min
What term means being open and unobstructed?
What term descries hard veins?
What is a puncture resistant container used to dispose of contaminated needles and other sharp medical objects?
What term describes a clot of blood?
drops per minute
keep vein open
Milliliters per hour
What is the goal of IV fluid administration?
To correct or prevent fluid and electrolyte disturbances
What are some examples of why IV fluids are given?
to maintain fluid and electrolytes, to effectively administer medications, to administer blood/plasma or other products, nutritional formulas
What are some ways fluids can be lost?
Elimination, hemorrhage, Severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, moderate or excessive drainage from wounds, profuse sweating
How much fluid does the average adult need in a 24 hour period?
What is an advantage of administering fluids/meds via IV?
can supply patients with fluids/meds quickly
What are some disadvantages of administering med/fluids via IV?
cannot retrieve if error is made
All material introduced though IV must be _____ and free of _______ to avoid introducing bacteria?
All patients who require an IV need to be placed on _____
What must the doctor specify when ordering IV fluids?
solution to be given, amount to be infused and the rate
In what type of IV solution will cells maintain their normal size?
What are some examples of why Isotonic solutions are used?
fluid replacement caused by hypovolemia (excessive vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss)
What are examples of Isotonic solution?
Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl),
5% Dextrose in water
What type of fluid shifts fluids out of blood vessels and into interstital space?
What are examples of Hypotonic solutions?
.45% NaCl (one half normal saline)
.33% NaCl (one third normal saline)
What type of fluid causes fluid to be pulled from the cells and the interstitial tissues into the vascular space?
What are hypertonic solutions used for?
to replace electrolytes and pull fluid from cells and surrounding tissue to the vascular compartment
*used to treat people with severe hyponatrermia and cause irritation to the vein
What are examples of hypertonic solutions?
3 and 5% NaCl, 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl, 5% Dextrose in lactated ringer's
What is the most common complication with IV use?
What occurs when fluid leaks out of the vein into the surrounding tissue?
Infiltration; Tip of catheter withdraws from or pokes through the vein.
What are some sxs of infiltration?
edema around IV site, cool, painful swollen pale site with decreased IV flow rate
What should you do if infiltration occurs?
d/c IV and initiate a new IV site in another extremity
What can you do to reduce the discomfort of infiltration?
wrap extremity in a warm moist towel for 20 minutes
What term describes irritation of the vessel by the needle, cannula, medication or additives in the IV solution?
What are signs of phlebitis?
Erythema, warmth, edema, pain, possible red streak along path of vein
What can you doe to help relieve pain of phelbitis?
What are signs of a blood stream infection?
fever, chills, pain, headaches, nausea/vomiting, extreme fatigue
What occurs when a piece of cannula breaks off and travels in the vein until it lodges?
What occurs when air enters the vein?
What occurs when medications or fluids are given by bolus and administered too rapidly?
What are s/s of speed shock?
flushed face, headache, HTN, increased pulse rate/irregular, chills and dyspnea, changes in LOC, possible cardiac arrest
What are principles of blood transfusions?
Increase blood volume after surgery/trauma, increase RBC's/hemoglobin in patient with anemia, Provide selected cellular components (clotting factors, platelets, albumin)
What blood type is the universal donor?
What blood type is universal recipient?
Who can begin blood transfusion?
only licensed personnel
what are some timelines regarding blood administration?
must be started within 30 minutes, must be transfused within two but no more than four hours
What is needed for blood transfusion?
blood administration Y tubing with microfilter, 0.9% NS, 18 gauge IV or larger