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Flashcards in IN2 IV Deck (69):
1

What term describes a place where whole blood or blood plasma is drawn, typed, processed, and stored under refrigeration for future use?

Blood bank

2

What term describes the transfer of human blood or its components from a donor to a recipient?

Blood Transfusion

3

What term describes the classification of human blood cells to determine compatibility?

Blood typing

4

What term describes when fluid output exceeds fluid intake causing a decrease in the amount of fluid in body tissues?

Dehydration

5

What is a form of glucose found in human blood?

dextrose

6

What term describes when fluid intake exceeds fluid output, causing body tissues to swell with fluid?

Edema

7

What is a substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electrical charge when in solution?

Electrolyte

8

What term means via the veins?

Intravenous

9

What term describes a fine mesh filter in the drip chamber of an intravenous set used for blood transfusions.

Microfilter: Prevents blood clots from entering the circulatory system

10

What term describes a blood product with an extremely high proportion of red blood cells?

Packed red blood cells

11

What term describes the fluid part of blood?

Plasma

12

What is any part of the minute, disc-like, colorless element of the blood that are essential for normal clotting?

platelets

13

What term means producing or produced by heat or fever?

pyrogenic

14

What term means to transfer or to introduce blood, blood plasma into a vein?

Transfuse

15

What term describes blood for transfusion form which none of the elements have been removed?

whole blood

16

What is a component of an intravenous set used for blood transfusions?

Y-tubing

17

D5W

5% Dextrose in water

18

IV

Intravenous

19

LR

Lactated Ringer's

20

NS

Normal Saline

21

NaCL

Sodium Chloride, Normal Saline

22

What term means to give a specified amount rapidly or all at once?

bolus

23

What term describes the rate the solution will be infused; unit of measure is gtts/min?

Drip rate

24

What term describes the manufacturer's certified flow rate of the tubing so that a certain number of drops equals 1mL?

Drop Factor

25

What term describes the rate the solution will be infused?

Flow rate; unit of measure is mL/hr or gtts/min

26

What term means being open and unobstructed?

Patent

27

What term descries hard veins?

Sclerotic

28

What is a puncture resistant container used to dispose of contaminated needles and other sharp medical objects?

Sharps container

29

What term describes a clot of blood?

thrombus

30

gtts/min

drops per minute

31

KVO

keep vein open

32

mL/hr

Milliliters per hour

33

What is the goal of IV fluid administration?

To correct or prevent fluid and electrolyte disturbances

34

What are some examples of why IV fluids are given?

to maintain fluid and electrolytes, to effectively administer medications, to administer blood/plasma or other products, nutritional formulas

35

What are some ways fluids can be lost?

Elimination, hemorrhage, Severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, moderate or excessive drainage from wounds, profuse sweating

36

How much fluid does the average adult need in a 24 hour period?

1500-2000 mL

37

What is an advantage of administering fluids/meds via IV?

can supply patients with fluids/meds quickly

38

What are some disadvantages of administering med/fluids via IV?

cannot retrieve if error is made

39

All material introduced though IV must be _____ and free of _______ to avoid introducing bacteria?

Sterile, particles

40

All patients who require an IV need to be placed on _____

I&Os

41

What must the doctor specify when ordering IV fluids?

solution to be given, amount to be infused and the rate

42

In what type of IV solution will cells maintain their normal size?

Isotonic

43

What are some examples of why Isotonic solutions are used?

fluid replacement caused by hypovolemia (excessive vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss)

44

What are examples of Isotonic solution?

Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl),
Lactated Ringers,
5% Dextrose in water

45

What type of fluid shifts fluids out of blood vessels and into interstital space?

Hypotonic solutions

46

What are examples of Hypotonic solutions?

.45% NaCl (one half normal saline)
.33% NaCl (one third normal saline)

47

What type of fluid causes fluid to be pulled from the cells and the interstitial tissues into the vascular space?

Hypertonic

48

What are hypertonic solutions used for?

to replace electrolytes and pull fluid from cells and surrounding tissue to the vascular compartment
*used to treat people with severe hyponatrermia and cause irritation to the vein

49

What are examples of hypertonic solutions?

3 and 5% NaCl, 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl, 5% Dextrose in lactated ringer's

50

What is the most common complication with IV use?

Infiltration

51

What occurs when fluid leaks out of the vein into the surrounding tissue?

Infiltration; Tip of catheter withdraws from or pokes through the vein.

52

What are some sxs of infiltration?

edema around IV site, cool, painful swollen pale site with decreased IV flow rate

53

What should you do if infiltration occurs?

d/c IV and initiate a new IV site in another extremity

54

What can you do to reduce the discomfort of infiltration?

wrap extremity in a warm moist towel for 20 minutes

55

What term describes irritation of the vessel by the needle, cannula, medication or additives in the IV solution?

Phelbitis

56

What are signs of phlebitis?

Erythema, warmth, edema, pain, possible red streak along path of vein

57

What can you doe to help relieve pain of phelbitis?

warm compress

58

What are signs of a blood stream infection?

fever, chills, pain, headaches, nausea/vomiting, extreme fatigue

59

What occurs when a piece of cannula breaks off and travels in the vein until it lodges?

Catherer embolus

60

What occurs when air enters the vein?

air embolus

61

What occurs when medications or fluids are given by bolus and administered too rapidly?

Speed shock

62

What are s/s of speed shock?

flushed face, headache, HTN, increased pulse rate/irregular, chills and dyspnea, changes in LOC, possible cardiac arrest

63

What are principles of blood transfusions?

Increase blood volume after surgery/trauma, increase RBC's/hemoglobin in patient with anemia, Provide selected cellular components (clotting factors, platelets, albumin)

64

What blood type is the universal donor?

type O

65

What blood type is universal recipient?

type AB

66

Who can begin blood transfusion?

only licensed personnel

67

what are some timelines regarding blood administration?

must be started within 30 minutes, must be transfused within two but no more than four hours

68

What is needed for blood transfusion?

blood administration Y tubing with microfilter, 0.9% NS, 18 gauge IV or larger

69

Who often should you take vital sings on a person receiving a blood transfusion?

every 5 minutes for the first 15, after that according to local policy