Bone Pathology Flashcards Preview

Hugh's Locomotor > Bone Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Pathology Deck (28):
1

What structures/type of tissue forms during the inflammatory phase of bone healing?

Haematoma

Granulation tissue

1

How long do fractures take to repair in children?

Around half the usual time

2

What is the difference between complete and incomplete fractures?

Complete is when the whole shaft of a bone is separated

Incomplete is were it isn't complete separated

2

What is the underlying cause of osteomalacia?

Vitamin D deficiency

3

What is a stress fracture?

A fracture caused by repeated low force injuries to a bone

4

If the ends of a fracture are closely apposed, which stage of repair can be skipped?

The soft callus stage

5

What are the two effects that bone mets can have on the structure of bone?

Osteolytic 

Osteosclerotic

6

How long is the hard callus stage usually?

Weeks to months

8

What mechanotransduction?

The ability of osteocytes to sense stresses present in bone

8

What is pseudo-arthrosis?

Fibrous tissue that forms in a non-union joint in place of proper repair

9

What are some bones that are commonly affected by avascular necrosis?

Head of femur

Scaphoid

10

What is the new name for a simple fracture?

Closed fracture

11

What is a displaced fracture?

When the two ends of a fracture no longer communicate

13

Which cells of the bone produce ALP (alkaline phosphatase)?

Osteoblasts

14

What are the goals of treatments intervention with fractures?

Close the gap between fracture ends

Reduce movement

Remove factors that slow healing eg poor blood supply, infection, smoking

15

What determines the severity of osteoporosis?

Peak bone mass

Resorption - begins >30

16

What is the pathophysiology of Paget's disease?

Osteoclasts are over-reactive

Osteoblasts produce more bone

Results in thick, soft cortical bone, rough trabecular bone and ease of fractures

17

What is a pathological fracture?

When the fracture is due to some underlying pathology eg osteoporosis or mets

17

How does hyperparathyroidism effect bone cells?

Increases the activity of osteoclasts

18

What is the new name for a compound fracture?

Open

20

How long does it take for non-union fractures to heal?

They don't

21

What is a comminuted fracture?

When there are more than 2 broken pieces

22

A butterfly fracture is another name for what type of fracture?

Comminuted

23

Despite being thicker than normal, why is the hard callus weaker than normal bone?

Because it's made up of woven bone

24

How long does the remodelling stage take?

Months to years

26

What is mal-union?

Healing of a bone in an unacceptable position

27

What are the 4 stages of bone healing?

Inflammatory phase

Reparative phase

- Soft callus (cartilage is laid down)

- Hard callus (cartilage is replaced by bone)

Remodelling phase - woven bone is remodelled into Haversian systems

28

How long does a typical upper limb fracture take to repair in a adult?

6-8 weeks