What type of vaccine is the MMR?
In what subset of the population can inactivated vaccine be used where live ones can't?
In the immunocompromised
What type of vaccine is BCG?
What are some advantages of living vaccine?
Broader immune response develops
Local immune response can develop
Easier to administer (sometimes)
What type of vaccine is the pertussis vaccine?
Component - 3 or 5 components
Replaced an inactivated vaccine which had some side effects
What are the disadvantages of using inactivated vaccines?
Higher dose is required
An adjuvant is required
What are hyperimmune antibodies?
All the antibodies possessed by a person that are against a single antigen
What type of vaccine is the Hep B vaccine?
Component vaccine - its surface antigen is made in yeast cells
What are some possible complications inherent with live vaccines?
Back mutations to virulence - Sabin vac
Spread of organism to immunocompromised hosts
Contamination - it's not possible to sterilise the vaccine
What are some situations in which pooled antibodies are given as passive immune therapy?
During measles infection to counter its significant immunosuppressive effect
For patients with agammaglobulinaemia
What are pooled antibodies?
All the antibodies extracted from a person's serum
How are empirically attenuated vaccine classically made?
By taking the pathogen and culturing it in unfavourable conditions
How can living unattenuated pathogens be used as vaccines?
If they administered by a alternative route - eg a respiratory pathogen that is injested
Or a animal pathogen given to a human - cow pox
What type of vaccine is the Salk vaccine?
What for pathogen is a rationally attenuated vaccine currently available?
What type of vaccine is the sabin vaccine?
How can pre-exisiting immunity towards a vaccine exist?
Passive immunisation of maternal antibodies in babies
Why are monoclonal antibodies modified during production?
To humanise them so there is no reaction to the mice antigens