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Hugh's Locomotor > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (18):
1

What type of vaccine is the MMR?

Live attenuated

2

In what subset of the population can inactivated vaccine be used where live ones can't?

In the immunocompromised

3

What type of vaccine is BCG?

Live attenuated

3

What are some advantages of living vaccine?

Broader immune response develops

Local immune response can develop

Easier to administer (sometimes)

4

What type of vaccine is the pertussis vaccine?

Component - 3 or 5 components 

Replaced an inactivated vaccine which had some side effects

4

What are the disadvantages of using inactivated vaccines?

Weaker response

Higher dose is required

An adjuvant is required

Expensive

6

What are hyperimmune antibodies?

All the antibodies possessed by a person that are against a single antigen

7

What type of vaccine is the Hep B vaccine?

Component vaccine - its surface antigen is made in yeast cells

7

What are some possible complications inherent with live vaccines?

Back mutations to virulence - Sabin vac

Spread of organism to immunocompromised hosts

Contamination - it's not possible to sterilise the vaccine

9

What are some situations in which pooled antibodies are given as passive immune therapy?

During measles infection to counter its significant immunosuppressive effect

For patients with agammaglobulinaemia

10

What are pooled antibodies?

All the antibodies extracted from a person's serum

11

How are empirically attenuated vaccine classically made?

By taking the pathogen and culturing it in unfavourable conditions

12

How can living unattenuated pathogens be used as vaccines?

If they administered by a alternative route - eg a respiratory pathogen that is injested

Or a animal pathogen given to a human - cow pox

14

What type of vaccine is the Salk vaccine?

Inactivated vaccine

15

What for pathogen is a rationally attenuated vaccine currently available?

Cholera

16

What type of vaccine is the sabin vaccine?

Live attenuated

17

How can pre-exisiting immunity towards a vaccine exist?

Passive immunisation of maternal antibodies in babies

18

Why are monoclonal antibodies modified during production?

To humanise them so there is no reaction to the mice antigens