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Hugh's Locomotor > Malaria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malaria Deck (15)
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What treatment options are available for severe malaria?

7-10 day, IV aremisinin or quinine

IV fluids and supportive therapy


Why isn't Plasmodium vivax in Africa?

Because there is some sort of resistance conferred in the African genome


Why don't CD8 T cells play a major roll in blood stage immunity?

Because RBCs don't express MHC


What are some of the clinical syndromes seen in severe malaria?

Cerebral malaria - Coma, convulsions

- long term neurological deficits


Respiratory distress


Metabolic acidosis


What is the major aspect of immunity that develops towards blood stage merozoites?

The antibody response that coat merozoites to prevent them from invading RBCs and growing

Antibodies that opsonise infected RBCs so they can be phagocytosed by macrophages/monocytes/neutrophils


Describe the immunity that develops towards sporozoites

Antibodies coat the sporozoites preventing them from infecting hepatocytes


Describe the immunity that develops towards the liver stage of malaria infection?

CD8 T cells


What are some potential sequelae of mother's getting malaria during pregnancy?

Low birth weight babies

Stillbirths and miscarriage


Which species of malaria can become dormant in the liver?

P. vivax


What treatment option is available for mild malaria?

A short course treatment with aremisinin combination therapy



What is the life cycle of malaria parasite?

Sporozoites are injected into the blood > Travel to the liver > Incubate for 7-10 days > merozoites burst out of hepatocytes and enter blood > merozoites infect RBCs (disease) > gametocytes are released


What parasite factors makes the development of immunity towards malaria so slow?

Multiple target antigens

Antigenic diversity: major targets show substantial diversity

Antigen variation: gene families allow switching to avoid the immune response


What is the pathophysiology of disease progression in severe malaria?

Parasite is in the blood

- It accumulates in organs

- There is the immune response

- RBCs are killed, both directly by the pathogen and uninfected RBCs by the spleen


What stage of the malaria lifecycle is the immune response primarily directed against?

Blood stage (merozoites)


What genus of mosquito transmits malaria parasite?