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Musculoskeletal System > Bones and Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones and Joints Deck (42):
1

What are the classifications of bones by shape?

Flat
Short
Long
Irregular
Sesamoid
Sutural

2

Give an example of a short bone

Carpal

3

Give an example of an irregular bone

Vertebra

4

Where do you find sutural bones?

Within a cranial suture

5

Short bones consist mainly of ...

Spongy bone

6

Where does a nutrient artery enter the bone?

Diaphysis

7

What are the structural classification of joints?

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

8

What are the functional classifications of joints?

Synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis

9

What do we term an immovable joint?

Synarthrosis

10

What do we term a freely moveable joint?

Diarthrosis

11

Define syndesmosis

Slightly moveable fibrous joint which connects bones via connective tissue

12

What is another name for a primary cartilaginous joint and what are its features?

Synchondrosis

Connective medium is hyaline cartilage
Synarthrosis

13

Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint

Xiphisternal joint

14

What is another name for a secondary cartilaginous joint and what are its features?

Symphysis

Connective medium is fibrocartilage
Amphiarthrosis

15

Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint

Pubic symphysis

16

What is the fibrous capsule of a synovial joint made from?

Collagen

17

What are the features of synovial membrane?

Thin
Highly vascularised
Produces synovial fluid

18

What is a tendon sheath?

An elongated bursa wrapped around a tendon

19

Name some features of synovial fluid

Clear/pale yellow
Viscous
Slightly alkaline at rest
Only a small volume in joint spaces

20

What are the functions of synovial fluid?

Reduces friction
Shock absorption
Nutrient and waste transport

21

Does articular cartilage have a blood supply?

No
Articular cartilage is avascular so is dependent on diffusion through the synovial fluid.

22

What is Hilton's law?

The nerves supplying the joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin overlying the insertions of these muscles.

23

What are the types of synovial joint?

Planar
Hinge
Pivot
Condyloid
Saddle
Ball and socket

24

Describe a planar joint

Articulating surfaces are flat or only slightly curved
Gliding/sliding movements
Non-axial

25

Give an example of a planar joint

Sternoclavicular

26

Describe a hinge joint

Pulley shaped: convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another
Uniaxial

27

Give 2 examples of hinge joints

Knee
Ankle

28

Describe a pivot joint

Rounded/pointed surface of one bone articulates within a ring formed by another bone
Uniaxial

29

Give an example of a pivot joint

Atlantoaxial

30

Describe a condyloid joint

Oval shaped condyle of one bone rests on elliptical cavity of another
Biaxial

31

Give an example of a condyloid bone

Metacarpophalangeal joint
Radio-carpal (wrist)

32

Describe a saddle joint

One bone is saddle shaped and the other bone resembles the legs of the rider
Biaxial

33

Give an example of a saddle joint

1st carpometacarpal joint (thumb)

34

Describe a ball and socket joint

Ball like surface of one bone fits into the cup like surface of another
Polyaxial

35

Give 2 examples of ball and socket joints

Hip
Shoulder

36

What factors affect stability and motion of joints?

Structure/shape of articulating bones
Strength and tension of joint ligaments
Arrangement and tone of muscles
Neighbouring soft tissues
Hormones
Use/disuse

37

What are the effects of ageing on joints?

Decreased production of synovial fluid
Thinning of articular cartilage
Shortening of ligaments
Degenerative changes

38

What are the symptoms of arthritis?

Pain, swelling and stiffness

39

What are the signs of arthritis?

Redness, swelling, deformity, tenderness, reduced range of movement and abnormal gait

40

What are the x-ray features of rheumatoid arthritis?

Narrowing of joint space
Loss of bone matrix
Bony erosions
Subluxation
Gross deformity

41

What are the functions of the skeleton?

Support
Protection
Movement
Mineral and growth factor storage
Haematopoeisis

42

What is the most commonly dislocated joint?

Shoulder (glenohumeral)