Flashcards in Bones and Joints Deck (42):
What are the classifications of bones by shape?
Give an example of a short bone
Give an example of an irregular bone
Where do you find sutural bones?
Within a cranial suture
Short bones consist mainly of ...
Where does a nutrient artery enter the bone?
What are the structural classification of joints?
What are the functional classifications of joints?
What do we term an immovable joint?
What do we term a freely moveable joint?
Slightly moveable fibrous joint which connects bones via connective tissue
What is another name for a primary cartilaginous joint and what are its features?
Connective medium is hyaline cartilage
Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint
What is another name for a secondary cartilaginous joint and what are its features?
Connective medium is fibrocartilage
Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint
What is the fibrous capsule of a synovial joint made from?
What are the features of synovial membrane?
Produces synovial fluid
What is a tendon sheath?
An elongated bursa wrapped around a tendon
Name some features of synovial fluid
Slightly alkaline at rest
Only a small volume in joint spaces
What are the functions of synovial fluid?
Nutrient and waste transport
Does articular cartilage have a blood supply?
Articular cartilage is avascular so is dependent on diffusion through the synovial fluid.
What is Hilton's law?
The nerves supplying the joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin overlying the insertions of these muscles.
What are the types of synovial joint?
Ball and socket
Describe a planar joint
Articulating surfaces are flat or only slightly curved
Give an example of a planar joint
Describe a hinge joint
Pulley shaped: convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another
Give 2 examples of hinge joints
Describe a pivot joint
Rounded/pointed surface of one bone articulates within a ring formed by another bone
Give an example of a pivot joint
Describe a condyloid joint
Oval shaped condyle of one bone rests on elliptical cavity of another
Give an example of a condyloid bone
Describe a saddle joint
One bone is saddle shaped and the other bone resembles the legs of the rider
Give an example of a saddle joint
1st carpometacarpal joint (thumb)
Describe a ball and socket joint
Ball like surface of one bone fits into the cup like surface of another
Give 2 examples of ball and socket joints
What factors affect stability and motion of joints?
Structure/shape of articulating bones
Strength and tension of joint ligaments
Arrangement and tone of muscles
Neighbouring soft tissues
What are the effects of ageing on joints?
Decreased production of synovial fluid
Thinning of articular cartilage
Shortening of ligaments
What are the symptoms of arthritis?
Pain, swelling and stiffness
What are the signs of arthritis?
Redness, swelling, deformity, tenderness, reduced range of movement and abnormal gait
What are the x-ray features of rheumatoid arthritis?
Narrowing of joint space
Loss of bone matrix
What are the functions of the skeleton?
Mineral and growth factor storage