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Musculoskeletal System > Posterior Leg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posterior Leg Deck (54):
1

Describe the route of the small saphenous vein

Starts just posterior to the lateral ankle (malleolus)
Runs up the centre of the posterior leg
Enters popliteal region to drain into popliteal vein

2

How many muscles reside in the posterior leg?

7

3

Which nerve roots does the calcaneal reflex test?

S1-S2

4

Name the 2 bursae associated with the calcaneal tendon

Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa
Deep bursa of calcaneal tendon

5

What is the origin of gastrocnemius?

Medial head = medial femoral condyle
Lateral head = lateral femoral condyle

6

What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius?

Calcaneus

7

What are the actions of the gastrocnemius?

Plantarflexion of foot
Flexor of knee

8

What is the nerve supply to gastrocnemius?

Tibial nerve

9

What is the nerve supply to all superficial posterior leg muscles?

Tibial nerve

10

What are the superficial posterior leg muscles?

Gastrocnemius
Plantaris
Soleus

11

What is the origin of plantaris?

Lateral supracondylar line of femur

12

What is the insertion of plantaris?

Calcaneus

13

What are the actions of plantaris?

Plantarflexion of foot
Flexion of knee

14

What is the nerve supply to plantaris?

Tibial nerve

15

What is the origin of soleus?

Soleal line of tibia

16

What is the insertion of soleus?

Calcaneus

17

What is the action of soleus?

Plantarflexion

18

What is the nerve supply to soleus?

Tibial nerve

19

Describe a ruptured calcaneal tendon

Usually occurs through forceful plantarflexion
Foot will be permanently dorsiflexed
Soleus and gastrocnemius contract to form a lump in the calf

20

How many deep muscles of the posterior leg are there?

4

21

What is the origin of popliteus?

Posterior, proximal tibia

22

What is the insertion of popliteus?

Lateral condyle of femur

23

What is the action of the popliteus?

'Unlocking' the knee - laterally rotate femur on tibia

24

What is the nerve supply to popliteus?

Tibial nerve

25

What is the origin of tibialis posterior?

Interosseous membrane of tibia and fibula and the posterior surfaces of these 2 bones

26

What is the insertion of tibialis posterior?

Plantar surface of medial tarsal bones

27

What are the actions of TP?

Inverts and plantarflexes the foot
Maintains medial arch of foot

28

What is the nerve supply to TP?

Tibial nerve

29

What is the origin of FDL?

Medial surface of tibia

30

What is the insertion of FDL?

Plantar surfaces of lateral 4 toes

31

What is the action of FDL?

Flexes the lateral 4 toes

32

What is the nerve supply to FDL?

Tibial nerve

33

What is the origin of FHL?

Posterior fibula

34

What is the insertion of FHL?

Plantar surface of phalanx of great toe

35

What is the action of FHL?

Flexes great toe

36

What is the nerve supply to FHL?

Tibial nerve

37

Describe the posterior tibial pulse

From posterior tibial artery, posterior to medial malleolus
Enters foot via tarsal tunnel
Posterior tibial artery splits into the lateral and medial plantar arteries and supplies the plantar foot (and contributes to toes)

38

Describe the peripheral nerve territory of the sural nerve

Posterior, lateral leg
And dorsum of foot over metatarsal V

39

Describe the peripheral nerve territory of medial calcaneal nerve

Heel (posterior, inferior leg)

40

What is the common insertion for superficial posterior leg muscles?

Calcaneal tendon

41

What is the common insertion for deep posterior leg muscles?

Inferior to medial malleolus (passes)

42

What is the main movement of the superficial posterior leg muscles?

Plantarflexion

43

What is the main movement of the deep posterior leg muscles?

Inversion

44

How many joints does gastrocnemius cross and therefore what are its movements?

2
Plantar flexion when knee is extended
Knee flexion

45

Which posterior leg muscle is missing in 10-15% of people?

Plantaris

46

What is the mnemonic to remember the contents of the tarsal tunnel?

Tom, Dick and very nervous Harry

47

What are the contents of the tarsal tunnel?

Tibialis posterior tendon
Flexor digitorum longus tendon
Posterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial vein
Tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longus tendon

48

What is the origin of the tibial nerve?

Apex of popliteal fossa

49

Where does the posterior tibial artery come from?

Continuation of the popliteal artery

50

Which areas does the posterior tibial artery supply?

Posterior compartment of leg and plantar part of foot

51

Where is the posterior tibial artery palpable?

Inferior, posterior to medial malleolus

52

How might Achilles rupture occur?

Rapid plantarflexion or forced dorsiflexion

53

What do we often see after a Achilles rupture?

Contracted gastrocnemius and/or soleus in calf

54

Describe the Simmond's/Thompson's test

Patient kneels with relaxed calf
Squeeze their calf to imitate contraction of superficial muscles
Should cause plantarflexion
If it doesn't then something is wrong with the calcaneal tendon