Flashcards in Common Fractures Deck (24)
Name some of the signs/symptoms of fractures
Loss of function
Define a pathological fracture
A fracture occurring through abnormal bone under physiological load
What are the 3 phases of fracture healing?
What type of healing is normal fracture healing?
Healing by callus
Name some factors influencing bone healing
Which type of bone healest quickest?
Cancellous (spongy) bone heals faster than cortical bone
According to Pearson's rule, what are the approximate lengths of time for fracture healing of a child in the upper and lower limb?
Upper limb = 3 weeks
Lower limb = 6 weeks
According to Pearson's rule, what are the approximate lengths of time of fracture healing in an adult, upper and lower limb?
Upper limb = 6 weeks
Lower limb = 12 weeks
Why does hypertrophic non-union occur?
The bone is moving too much so doesn't heal properly
What is atrophic non-union?
From a poor blood supply
Name some early, local fracture complications
Name some early, systemic fracture complications
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Name some late, local fracture complications
Name some late, regional fracture complications
Chronic regional pain syndrome
Describe chronic regional pain syndrome
The sympathetic NS overreacts to an injury
Makes it stiff and painful
Memory gets programmed to deal with pain in a certain way
What is compartment syndrome?
Raised pressure within an enclosed fascial space, leading to localised tissue ischaemia.
Causes excessive pain which is not relieved by analgesia.
May require surgical decompression
Name 3 things that pre-dispose someone to stress fractures
Where are the usual sites for a DEXA scan?
Describe a Colles fracture
Dorsal displacement of distal radius
Describe a Smiths fracture
Palmar displacement of distal radius (anterior)
How do we usually treat a displaced, intracapsular NOF fracture?
How do we usually treat a displaced, extracapsular NOF fracture?
Dynamic hip screw
When are tibial shaft fractures common?
Road traffic collisions