Common Fractures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Fractures Deck (24):
1

Name some of the signs/symptoms of fractures

Pain
Loss of function
Swelling
Deformity
Bony tenderness
Crepitus
Abnormal movement

2

Define a pathological fracture

A fracture occurring through abnormal bone under physiological load

3

What are the 3 phases of fracture healing?

Inflammatory
Reparative
Remodelling

4

What type of healing is normal fracture healing?

Healing by callus

5

Name some factors influencing bone healing

Fracture configuration
Blood supply
Bone type
Treatment
Age
Comorbidity
Bone pathology

6

Which type of bone healest quickest?

Cancellous (spongy) bone heals faster than cortical bone

7

According to Pearson's rule, what are the approximate lengths of time for fracture healing of a child in the upper and lower limb?

Upper limb = 3 weeks
Lower limb = 6 weeks

8

According to Pearson's rule, what are the approximate lengths of time of fracture healing in an adult, upper and lower limb?

Upper limb = 6 weeks
Lower limb = 12 weeks

9

Why does hypertrophic non-union occur?

The bone is moving too much so doesn't heal properly

10

What is atrophic non-union?

From a poor blood supply

11

Name some early, local fracture complications

Nerve injury
Vascular injury
Compartment syndrome
Avascular necrosis
Infection

12

Name some early, systemic fracture complications

Hypovolaemia/shock
Fat embolism
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Disseminated intravascular coagulation

13

Name some late, local fracture complications

Delayed union
Non-union
Malunion
Myositis ossificans
Re-fracture

14

Name some late, regional fracture complications

Thromboembolism
Osteoporosis
Joint stiffness
Chronic regional pain syndrome

15

Describe chronic regional pain syndrome

The sympathetic NS overreacts to an injury
Makes it stiff and painful
Memory gets programmed to deal with pain in a certain way

16

What is compartment syndrome?

Raised pressure within an enclosed fascial space, leading to localised tissue ischaemia.
Causes excessive pain which is not relieved by analgesia.
May require surgical decompression

17

Name 3 things that pre-dispose someone to stress fractures

Sports
Eating disorders
Osteoporosis

18

Where are the usual sites for a DEXA scan?

Wrist
Hip
Spine

19

Describe a Colles fracture

Dorsal displacement of distal radius

20

Describe a Smiths fracture

Palmar displacement of distal radius (anterior)

21

How do we usually treat a displaced, intracapsular NOF fracture?

Hip replacement

22

How do we usually treat a displaced, extracapsular NOF fracture?

Dynamic hip screw

23

When are tibial shaft fractures common?

Falls
Road traffic collisions
Sports

24

Which side do we tend to fracture the ankle on?

Lateral side