Flashcards in Bones And Joints Of Lower Limb Deck (59):
Where does the head of the femur articulate with the pelvis?
Which 2 parts come together to form the linea aspera?
Pectineal line and gluteal tuberosity
Is the linea aspera on the anterior or posterior femur?
Is the intertrochanteric crest on the anterior or posterior femur?
Which side of the distal femur is the adductor tubercle on?
The medial malleolus is formed from which bone?
The lateral malleolus is formed from which bone?
Name the proximal tarsals
Name the intermediate tarsal
Name the distal tarsals
How many tarsal do we have per foot?
Where does the greater sciatic foramen run?
Down the lateral aspect of the ilium and round the posterior of the acetabulum
What is the Pes Anserinus?
Conjoined tendons of 3 muscles that insert on the anterior, medial, proximal tibia
3 muscles: sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus
What shape is the ligament to the head of the femur?
What is special about the ligament of the head of the femur?
Contains small arterial blood supply to the head of the femur
Which 3 parts of the pelvis come together at the acetabulum?
What do we call the part of the acetabulum where it is incomplete inferiorly?
Which ligament supports the inferior part of the acetabulum?
Transverse acetabular ligament
Which 3 ligaments reinforce the joint capsule of the hip?
Describe the iliofemoral ligament
One of the strongest ligaments in the body
Ilium to intertrochanteric line
Reinforces anterior and superior portion
Describe the pubofemoral ligament
Attaches to pubic bone and femur
Prevents over abduction
Describe the ischiofemoral ligament
Weakest of the 3
Ischium to the femur
Of the quadriceps, which is the only one that can exert an affect on the hip?
Name the main hip flexors
Name the adductors of the hip
Which nerves supply the hip joint and at which faces?
Femoral nerve = anterior
Nerve to quadratus femoris = posterior
Obturator nerve = inferior
Gluteal superior nerve = superior
What is the major source of blood supply to the hip?
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
What is the minor blood supply to the hip?
Obturator artery via ligament of head of femur
Which type of femoral fractures are more likely to result in avascular necrosis?
Stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion
What is between the condyles of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly?
Anterior = shallow depression for patella articulation
Posterior = deep notch: intercondylar fossa
Which condyle of the femur takes more weight when the knee is locked?
Where is the adductor tubercle of the femur?
At the medial epicondyle
Describe the menisci of the knee
Crescenteric plates of fibrocartilage
Thicker at the edges
Attached to intercondylar areas, attached to joint capsule and anteriorly connected by transverse ligament of the knee
Why do we need knee menisci?
Act as shock absorbers
Deepen surface for articulation
How does the lateral meniscus of the knee vary from the medial meniscus?
Almost O shaped
More mobile than the medial meniscus
Attachments to the tibia are closer together
Less likely to tear
Why is a meniscal tear more likely to heal if it is on the edge?
Menisci have better outer blood supplies so a tear on the periphery is more likely to heal
Which ligaments of the knee are intra capsular?
Cruciates (anterior and posterior)
Which ligament of the knee strengthens the capsule?
Oblique popliteal ligament
How do we remember the course of the cruciates?
Describe the anterior cruciate ligament
Weaker than posterior
Relatively poor blood supply
Describe the posterior cruciate ligament
Stronger than anterior
Main stabiliser in weight bearing when knee is flexed
Which muscle unlocks the knee?
Describe the 'Unhappy Triad' of damage at the knee
Injury to medial collateral ligament, medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament
How do we test for cruciate damage?
Anterior and posterior draw sign
How does the patella usually dislocate?
Which are the 3 bursae in which bursitis commonly occurs at the knee?
Which bursa is inflamed in 'housemaid's knee'?
Which bursa is inflamed in clergyman's knee?
Fragment of bone pulled from main body by tendon or ligament
When might ischial tuberosity avulsion occur?
In sports needing rapid contration and relaxation of the hamstrings
Where is the gluteal tuberosity of the femur?
Where is the pectineal line of the femur?
What attaches to the intercondylar fossa of the femur?
What is the main blood supply to the head of the femur?
Medial circumflex artery
Where does the patella ligament attach?
What is the innervation of the hip?
Anterior: femoral and obturator nerves
Posterior: superior gluteal nerve and nerve to quadratus femoris
What are the main medial rotators of the thigh?