Bones And Joints Of Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bones And Joints Of Lower Limb Deck (59):
1

Where does the head of the femur articulate with the pelvis?

Acetabulum

2

Which 2 parts come together to form the linea aspera?

Pectineal line and gluteal tuberosity

3

Is the linea aspera on the anterior or posterior femur?

Posterior

4

Is the intertrochanteric crest on the anterior or posterior femur?

Posterior

5

Which side of the distal femur is the adductor tubercle on?

Medial side

6

The medial malleolus is formed from which bone?

Tibia

7

The lateral malleolus is formed from which bone?

Fibula

8

Name the proximal tarsals

Talus
Calcaneus

9

Name the intermediate tarsal

Navicular

10

Name the distal tarsals

Cuboid
3 Cuneiforms

11

How many tarsal do we have per foot?

7

12

Where does the greater sciatic foramen run?

Down the lateral aspect of the ilium and round the posterior of the acetabulum

13

What is the Pes Anserinus?

Conjoined tendons of 3 muscles that insert on the anterior, medial, proximal tibia
3 muscles: sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus

14

What shape is the ligament to the head of the femur?

Triangular

15

What is special about the ligament of the head of the femur?

Contains small arterial blood supply to the head of the femur

16

Which 3 parts of the pelvis come together at the acetabulum?

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

17

What do we call the part of the acetabulum where it is incomplete inferiorly?

Acetabular notch

18

Which ligament supports the inferior part of the acetabulum?

Transverse acetabular ligament

19

Which 3 ligaments reinforce the joint capsule of the hip?

Iliofemoral
Pubofemoral
Ischiofemoral

20

Describe the iliofemoral ligament

Y shaped
One of the strongest ligaments in the body
Ilium to intertrochanteric line
Prevents hyperextension
Reinforces anterior and superior portion

21

Describe the pubofemoral ligament

Attaches to pubic bone and femur
Protects anteriorly
Prevents over abduction

22

Describe the ischiofemoral ligament

Posterior
Weakest of the 3
Ischium to the femur
Limits extension

23

Of the quadriceps, which is the only one that can exert an affect on the hip?

Rectus femoris

24

Name the main hip flexors

Iliopsoas
Rectus femoris
Sartorius

25

Name the adductors of the hip

Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Pectineus
Gracilis
Obturator externus

26

Which nerves supply the hip joint and at which faces?

Femoral nerve = anterior
Nerve to quadratus femoris = posterior
Obturator nerve = inferior
Gluteal superior nerve = superior

27

What is the major source of blood supply to the hip?

Medial circumflex femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery

28

What is the minor blood supply to the hip?

Obturator artery via ligament of head of femur

29

Which type of femoral fractures are more likely to result in avascular necrosis?

Intra capsular

30

Define ankylosis

Stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion

31

What is between the condyles of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly?

Anterior = shallow depression for patella articulation
Posterior = deep notch: intercondylar fossa

32

Which condyle of the femur takes more weight when the knee is locked?

Medial condyle

33

Where is the adductor tubercle of the femur?

At the medial epicondyle

34

Describe the menisci of the knee

Crescenteric plates of fibrocartilage
Thicker at the edges
Attached to intercondylar areas, attached to joint capsule and anteriorly connected by transverse ligament of the knee

35

Why do we need knee menisci?

Act as shock absorbers
Deepen surface for articulation

36

How does the lateral meniscus of the knee vary from the medial meniscus?

Almost O shaped
More mobile than the medial meniscus
Attachments to the tibia are closer together
Less likely to tear

37

Why is a meniscal tear more likely to heal if it is on the edge?

Menisci have better outer blood supplies so a tear on the periphery is more likely to heal

38

Which ligaments of the knee are intra capsular?

Cruciates (anterior and posterior)

39

Which ligament of the knee strengthens the capsule?

Oblique popliteal ligament

40

How do we remember the course of the cruciates?

PAMs APLs

41

Describe the anterior cruciate ligament

Weaker than posterior
Relatively poor blood supply
Limits hyperextension

42

Describe the posterior cruciate ligament

Stronger than anterior
Limits hyperflexion
Main stabiliser in weight bearing when knee is flexed

43

Which muscle unlocks the knee?

Popliteus

44

Describe the 'Unhappy Triad' of damage at the knee

Injury to medial collateral ligament, medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament

45

How do we test for cruciate damage?

Anterior and posterior draw sign

46

How does the patella usually dislocate?

Laterally

47

Which are the 3 bursae in which bursitis commonly occurs at the knee?

Supra-patellar
Pre-patellar
Superficial infra-patellar

48

Which bursa is inflamed in 'housemaid's knee'?

Pre-patellar

49

Which bursa is inflamed in clergyman's knee?

Superficial infra-patellar

50

Define avulsion

Fragment of bone pulled from main body by tendon or ligament

51

When might ischial tuberosity avulsion occur?

In sports needing rapid contration and relaxation of the hamstrings
eg. Sprinting

52

Where is the gluteal tuberosity of the femur?

Posterior, lateral

53

Where is the pectineal line of the femur?

Posterior, medial

54

What attaches to the intercondylar fossa of the femur?

Cruciate ligaments

55

What is the main blood supply to the head of the femur?

Medial circumflex artery

56

Where does the patella ligament attach?

Tibial tuberosity

57

What is the innervation of the hip?

Anterior: femoral and obturator nerves
Posterior: superior gluteal nerve and nerve to quadratus femoris

58

What are the main medial rotators of the thigh?

Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus

59

What are the main lateral rotators of the thigh?

Gluteus maximus
Biceps femoris
(The larger muscles laterally rotate the thigh)