Flashcards in Bones, Ch 6 Deck (59):
4 classes of bones?
Irregular, long, short, flat, sesamoid
This type of bone appears white, smooth, and solid. It comprises 80% of bone mass.
Also called cancellous or trabecular bone. Located internal to compact bone and appears porous. 20% of bone mass.
Bones that are greater in length than width. Most common bone shape, found in the upper and lower limbs. Vary in size. Has medullary cavity.
Bones with a length that is nearly equal to the width. Carpal bones, sesamoids, bones along the tendons of muscles.
Bones with flat, thin surfaces, that may be slightly curved. Provide surfaces for muscle attachment and protect underlying soft tissues. Roof of skull, scapulae, sternum, ribs.
Spongy bone in these is called the diploë
Bones that have elaborate shapes. Vertebra, ossa coxae (hips), ethmoid, sphenoid, etc.
Elongated, usually cylindrical shaft of bone. Provides leverage and major weight support.
Hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis. Contain red bone marrow in children, yellow marrow (fat) in adults
Knobby region at the ends of a long bone. Joint surface covered by thin layer of hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage)
Proximal and distal
Region of mature bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. Contains the epiphyseal plate.
In metaphysis. Thin layer of hyaline cartilage that provides for continued lengthwise bone growth. Remnant in adults termed the epiphyseal line.
Tough, outer sheath covering the surface of a bone. Composed of dense irregular connective tissue. Protects bone from surrounding structures, attachment site for ligaments and tendons. Inner cellular layer contains osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
Attached to bone by numerous collagen perforating fibers.
Covers all internal surfaces of bone within the medullary cavity, like the bony struts if spongy bone. Incomplete layer of cells. Contains osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.
Blood supply of the bone?
Bone is highly vascularized, especially spongy bone. Vessels enter from the periosteum. Most bones have only one nutrient artery and one nutrient vein. A few bones, like the femur, have more than one of each.
A tunnel that penetrates the diaphysis and provides access for the nutrient artery and/or vein. Branches of these large vessels supply the osteons of the compact bone before entering and supplying the medullary cavity.
Hemopoietic (blood cell forming). Contains reticular (loose) connective tissue, immature blood cells, and fat. Myeloid tissue
Red bone marrow
Product of red bone marrow degeneration, blood vessels and adipocytes. May convert back to red bone marrow during severe anemia to facilitate the production of additional erythrocytes
Yellow bone marrow
Stem cells derived from mesenchyme that produce cells that mature to become osteoblasts. Located in the periosteum and endosteum.
Cell that are often positioned side by side on bone surfaces. Synthesize and secrete osteoid through bone deposition. Initial semisolid form of bone matrix, later calcifies. Become entrapped in the matrix they produce. Differentiate into osteocytes.
Mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts. Mostly retired but secrete chemicals to maintain the bone matrix and detect mechanical stress on the bone. If stress is detected, they may deposit new bone matrix by recruiting osteoblasts.
Large, multinuclear, phagocytic cells. Derived from fused bone marrow cells. Ruffled border to increase surface area exposed to bone. Often located within or adjacent to a depression or pit on the bone surface, termed resorption lacuna. Break down bones, bone reabsorption.
The unmineralized organic bone matrix produced by osteoblasts. Its organic components give bone tensile strength by resisting stretching and contribute to bone flexibility.
To grow, bones need what?
Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin C helps collagen formation. Calcium and phosphate for calcification.
Small cylindrical structures that are the basic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone. Oriented parallel to cone diaphysis.
Osteons, Haversian system
Lies at the center of the osteon and runs parallel to it. Blood vessels and nerves traveling here.
Rings of bone connective tissue that surround the central canal. Contains collagen fibers that give bone part of its strength and reliance.
Tiny interconnecting channels within bone connective tissue that extend from each lacunae and travel through the lamellae. Connect to others and central canal. House osteocyte projections
Allows travel of nutrients, minerals, gases, and wastes between blood vessels and osteocytes.
Run perpendicular to the central canals. They carry blood vessels, nerves from the periosteum that merge with the vessels in the central canals
Perforating (Volkmann) canals
Runs the entire circumference of bone. Just inside the bone periosteum and outside the spongy bone. Adds strength to the bone as a whole.
Lamellae that are remnants of resorbed osteons
Growth in length.
Growth from inside. Depends on the cartilage growth on the epiphyseal plate.
Interstitial cartilage growth
Growth in width, growth from outside in
Thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts on bone surfaces.
Appositional cartilage growth
Bone develops from a thin layer of mesenchymal cells referred to as a membrane. Centrally located mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate into osteoblasts, forming an ossification center. Osteoid is secreted within the membrane and calcifies. Woven bone and periosteum form, which turns into lamellar bone and red marrow.
Produces flat bones of the skull, some of the facial bones, mandible, and central part of the clavicle.
Begins with a hyaline cartilage model, and requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification. Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies, with the periosteal bud and spongy bone/medullary beginning to form in cavities. Then the epiphysis ossify at the end.
Produces most bones of the skeleton, including bones of the limbs, pelvis, vertebrae, and ends of the clavicle.
At the end, hyaline cartilage remains only in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages.
First zone nearest the epiphysis, composed of small chondrocytes distributed throughout the matrix. Resembles mature hyaline cartilage and secures epiphysis to the plate.
Zone of resting cartilage (reserve cartilage)
Second zone, chondrocytes undergo rapid mitotic divison, and become aligned into longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae. Columns parallel to diaphysis.
Zone of proliferating cartilage
Third zone, chondrocytes cease to divide and begin to hypertrophy. Walls of the lacuna become thin.
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
Fourth zone, composed of 2-3 layers of chondrocytes. Minerals deposited between columns of lacunae. Destroys chondrocytes.
Zone of calcified cartilage
Fifth zone. The walls break down between lacunae in columns and spaces invaded by capillaries and osteoprogenitor cells. New bone matrix deposited on the calcified cartilage matrix.
Zone of ossification
Occurs in weight-bearing movement and exercise, required for normal bone remodeling. Detected by osteocytes and communicated to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid.
Causes increase in bone strength and results from skeletal contraction and gravitational forces
Calcium is required for?
Initiation of muscle contraction. Exocytosis of molecules from cells, including neurons. Stimulation of the heart by pacemaker cells. Blood clotting.
Hormones that regulate blood calcium levels?
Calcitriol (vit D) stimulates Ca++ absorption from the small intestine into the blood.
Parathyroid hormone (parathyroid glands)
Calcitonin (thyroid gland)
Disease caused by Vit D deficiency in childhood. Characterized by deficient calcification of osteoid tissue. Acquires bowlegged appearance. Disturbances growth, hypocalcemia, and tetany from low blood calcium.
Continues to occur in developing nations and increasing in urban US children
Characterized by abnormal conversion of hyaline cartilage to bone. Long bones of limbs stop growing during childhood while others continue to grow normally.
Achondroplasia (dwarfism, most commonly)
Results from a failure of the chondrocytes in plate to grow and enlarge causing too little endochondral ossification .
Red bone marrow transplant may be required if it's destroyed or abnormally functioning. Harvested cells injected into bloodstream of patient, migrate to normal locations.
Bone marrow transplant
Reduced bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function. Occurs in a significant percentage of older women, less men. Weakened bones due to fracture, especially at wrist, hip, vertebrae. Smoking, white people.
Reduced hormones with age like growth hormone, estrogen, and testosterone contributes to reduction in bone mass.
Best treatment is prevention with diet and physical activity in young adults.
Thin break in a bone caused by increased physical activity.
Break in a bone that occurs because of weakening by disease
Broken bone not penetrating the skin
One of both ends piercing overlying skin
Bone fragments into three more pieces. Particularly common in the aged, whose bones are more brittle.
Bone is crushed, common in porous bones (osteoporosis) subjected to extreme trauma, like a fall
Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common sports fracture.
Epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the plate. Tends to occur where cartilage cells are dying and calcification of the matrix is occurring.
Broken bone is depressed inward, typical of skull fracture
Bone breaks incompletely, only side of the shaft breaks. Common in children with more organic matrix.
Four steps in fracture repair? Simple fracture about 2-3 months, compound is longer. Slower with age.
A hematoma forms. A fibrocartilaginous callus forms. A hardy, bony callus forms. The bone is remodeled.
Functions of the skeletal system?
Protection, mineral storage and acid-base homeostasis, blood cell formation, fat storage, movement, support
Specialized bones located within tendons. Generally small, relatively flat, and oval-shaped. Give tendon a mechanical advantage, providing better leverage for muscles, and also reduce wear and tear on the tendon. Patella.