Endocrine System, Ch 16 Flashcards Preview

A&P 1 > Endocrine System, Ch 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System, Ch 16 Deck (14):
1

Organs of this system work by synthesizing and secreting chemical messengers called this, that influence cell function to maintain homeostasis.

Endocrine
Hormones

2

How is the endocrine system different from the nervous system?

The cells of the endocrine do not come into close contact with their target cells. Instead they secrete hormones which travel in the bloodstream to reach the receptors in the target cells. The effects are longer lasting.

3

Signals in which the hormone is secreted into the blood and travels to affect distant tissues.

Endocrine signals

4

Signals that consist of a chemical secreted by cells into the ECF to affect nearby but different types of cells.

Paracrine

5

Signals in which a chemical secreted by the cells into the interstitial fluid elicits effects from the same cell or cell type.

Autocrine signals

6

Glands that consist of ductless glandular epithelial cells that secrete their hormones into the ECF for transport by the bloodstream.

Endocrine glands

7

Glands that secrete their products into ducts that lead to body surfaces or cavities.

Exocrine glands

8

The primary organs of the endocrine system use what glands? The secondary?

Primary is only endocrine functions
Secondary is both endocrine and various other.

9

Primary endocrine organs?

Anterior pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands
Adrenal cortices
Endocrine pancreas
Thymus

10

Most of the secondary endocrine organs are what? Anatomically these structures consist of nervous tissue. Secrete chemicals that act as hormones, called what?

Neuroendocrine organs
Neurohormones
Hypothalamus, pineal gland, adrenal medulla

11

When the level of a particular hormone rises in the blood, certain target cells will produce more receptors for that hormone, a process known as what?

Up-regulation

12

Prolonged exposure to to a high level of a given hormone causes target cells to decrease the number of receptors specific for that hormone, a process known as what?

Down-regulation

13

Hormones that consist of one or more amino acids, varying in size from single amino acids (amine) to several (peptide) to complete (protein). Generally hydrophilic and blind to plasma membrane receptors.

Amino-acid based hormones

14

Hormones that are cholesterol derivatives, with a core of hydrocarbon rings. All of them are hydrophobic and can interact with ether intracellular or plasma membrane receptors.

Steroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are the exception as they are amino-acid based but hydrophobic.