Flashcards in Axial Skeleton Deck (64):
Bones that protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems. Give shape and individuality to the face. Form part of the orbit and nasal cavities. Support the teeth. Provide attachment sites for muscles of facial expression and mastication.
Cavities of the skull?
Cranial cavity, orbits, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses.
Major marking of the ethmoid bone?
Cribiform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, ethmoid sinuses
Largets, strongest bone of the face.
Temporomandibular joint is the only freely moveable joint in the skull.
Coronoid proces, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular and mental foramina
Two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits
Plow-shaped bone that forms part of the nasal septum
Paired, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
Inferior nasal conchae
Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones.
Anterior, Posterior, Mastoid, Sphenoid
Growth of the cranium in infants?
Sutures are almost fully developed by age 5, as well as brain growth being 90-95% complete. Young child's cranium relatively large compared to the body.
Muscles that originate in superficial fascia or skull bones, and insert into the superficial fascia of the skin. Cause it to move during contraction, and most are innervated by the facial nerve CN VII.
Muscles of facial expression
Muscle of facial expression that draws eyebrows together and creates vertical wrinkle lines around the nose.
Circular muscle fibers surrounding orbit, closes eyelid during contraction
Muscles that elevate corners of the nostrils for "flared" nostrils
Muscle that encircles the opening of the mouth. It contracts when the mouth closes or puckers up.
Pulls lower lip inferiorly
Pulls upper lip superiorly as if a person is sneezing or snarling
Depressor labii inferioris
Levator labii superioris
Pulls corners of mouth superiorly and laterally. Works with zygomaticus major and minor in smiling
Levator anguli oris
Tenses the skin of the neck and pulls lower lip inferiorly.
Compresses the cheek against the teeth when chewing
When the facial nerve is inflamed and compressed, muscles on the same side are paralyzed, may be idiopathic. Prednisone used to reduce swelling, level and timing of recovery varies.
Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis, also known as Bell Palsy
Move mandible at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Innervated by CN VIII
Muscles of mastication
Four paired muscles: temporals, masster, and lateral and medial pterygoids
Primary curves of the spine. The only ones present in the newborn.
Thoracic and sacral curvatures
Curves in the spine that help to shift trunk weight over the legs.
Cervical, appears when the child is able to hold up their head at 3-4 months.
Lumbar, appears when the child is learning to sit, stand, and walk by the first year of life.
Exaggerated thoracic curvature that produces a humpback look. May result from osteoporosis.
Exaggerated lumbar curvature that may result from added abdominal weight.
Abnormal lateral spinal curvature that may require a back brace or surgery.
Posterior to the body of the vertebra, composed of two pedicles and two laminae
Originating from the posterolateral margins of the vertebral body
Extending posteromedially from the posterior edge of the pedicle
Has outer ring of fibrocartilage, annulus fibrosis.
Has inner gelatinous region, nucleus pulposus
Intervertebral disks, stabilization
What do the transverse foramina in the the transverse process of the cervical vertebra house?
Vertebral artery and vein
Vertebra that supports the head. It has no body or spinous process. Superior articular facets for articulation with the occipital condyles. Anterior and posterior tubercles.
Atlas cervical vertebra
(cervical have kidney-bean shaped bodies)
Movement of C1 and occipital allows for?
Movement of C1 and C2 allows for?
Nodding of the head
Have heart-shaped bodies. Distinguished by the presence of costal facets on the lateral side of the body and sides of transverse processes. Head of rib articulates with demifacet. Tubercle of rib articulates with costal facets on transverse processes.
T11 and T12 lacking transverse costal facets
Narrow portion of the bone projecting inferiorly
Broad, superior surface of the sacrum. Lateral sacral curvature more pronounced in males.
Sacrum completely fused by age 20-30
Permit passage of nerves to the pelvic organs and gluteals
Anterior and posterior sacral foramina
Dorsal ridge formed by fusion of spinous processes
Median sacral crest
Site of articulation between the sacrum and the coxae of the pelvic girdle. Forms strong sacroiliac joint.
Nucleus pulposus protruding into or through the annulus fibrosis. Produces a bulging disk of contents into the vertebral canal. Pinches the spinal cord or neves.
Cervical and lumbar most injured
Flat bone forming anterior midline of the thoracic wall
Widestand most superior portion of the sternum
Articulate sternum with left and right clavicles
Articulations for the first ribs' costal cartilages
Longest part of the sternum. Costal cartilages from ribs 2-7 attach here. Articulates with manubrium at sternal angle.
The articulation is an important landmark for palpitation and counting ribs. Costal cartilages of second ribs attach here.
At the tip of sternum. Doesn't ossify until age 40.
Connect individually to the sternum by cartilaginous extensions, termed costal cartilages.
True ribs (1-7)
Ribs with costal cartilages not attached directly to the sternum
False ribs (8-12)
Costal cartilage of 8-10 fused to that of rib 7. Indirectly attached to sternum.
Ribs 11-12 without a connection to the sternum, called floating ribs
Part of the rib with articular facet for transverse process of thoracic vertebra
Site where the tubular shaft beings to curve on the rib
Along the inferior internal border, makes the path of nerves and blood vessels
Work with the sternocleidomastoid to flex the neck. Elevate first and second ribs during forced inhalation.
Scalene muscles, anterior, middle, posterior
Anterolateral neck muscles flex the head and neck
Newborn with shortened sternocleidomastoid, may persist into childhood. From birth trauma or prenatal position. Head tilts to affected side and chin to unaffected side.
Congenital Muscular Torticollis
Physical therapy, botulinum toxin that impairs contraction of the affected muscle
Muscles that work to extend he head and/or neck
Posterior neck muscles
Trapezius primary function is to help move the pectoral girdle
Splenius capitus, splenius cervicis, semispinalis capitis, longissimus capitis
O: Vertebra C7-T6
I: Occipital bone, mastoid process of temporal bone
A: When controlled bilaterally, extend neck. When controlled unilaterally, turn head and neck to same side
Erector spinae muscles, most laterally placed. Has cervical, thoracic, and lumbar parts.
Erector spine muscles medial to the iliocostalis group. Inserts on vertebrae transverse processes. Composed of capitis, cervical and thoracic parts.
Erector spinae muscles most medially placed. Inserts on the spinous processes of vertebrae. Composed on cervical and thoracic parts
O: Ilium, ribs, vertebrae
I:Ribs, vertebre, and mastoid process of temporal bone
A: Used to maintain posture and stand erect. If contracted together, helps extend the vertebral column. If contracted on one side, lateral flexion toward that side.
Muscles of reparation that extend inferomedially from superior rib to adjacent inferior rib. Elevates ribs during inspiration, expanding cavity. Movement like lifting a bucket handle.
Muscles of respiration deep to external intercostals. Fibers at right angles to external intercostals. Depresses ribs during forced expiration.
Muscle of perspiration that is internally placed, dome-shaped muscle. Partitions thoracic and abdominal actives, associated with breathing. Fibers converting toward a fibrous central tendon the is pulled inferiorly. Increases vertical dimensions of thoracic cavity.
Muscular along lateral abdominal wall. Superficial, fibers directed inferiomedially. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly. Becomes cordlike inguinal ligament inferiorly.
Immediately deep to the external oblique. Fibers projecting superiomedially. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly.
Deepest abdominal muscle, fibers projecting transversely. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly.