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Flashcards in Axial Skeleton Deck (64):
1

Bones that protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems. Give shape and individuality to the face. Form part of the orbit and nasal cavities. Support the teeth. Provide attachment sites for muscles of facial expression and mastication.

Facial bones

2

Cavities of the skull?

Cranial cavity, orbits, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses.

3

Major marking of the ethmoid bone?

Cribiform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, ethmoid sinuses

4

Largets, strongest bone of the face.

Mandible
Temporomandibular joint is the only freely moveable joint in the skull.
Coronoid proces, mandibular condyle, alveolar margin, mandibular and mental foramina

5

Two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits

Palatine bones

6

Plow-shaped bone that forms part of the nasal septum

Vomer

7

Paired, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.

Inferior nasal conchae

8

Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones.

Fontanelles

Anterior, Posterior, Mastoid, Sphenoid

9

Growth of the cranium in infants?

Sutures are almost fully developed by age 5, as well as brain growth being 90-95% complete. Young child's cranium relatively large compared to the body.

10

Muscles that originate in superficial fascia or skull bones, and insert into the superficial fascia of the skin. Cause it to move during contraction, and most are innervated by the facial nerve CN VII.

Muscles of facial expression

11

Muscle of facial expression that draws eyebrows together and creates vertical wrinkle lines around the nose.

Corrugator supercillii

12

Circular muscle fibers surrounding orbit, closes eyelid during contraction

Orbicularis occuli

13

Muscles that elevate corners of the nostrils for "flared" nostrils

Nasalis

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Muscle that encircles the opening of the mouth. It contracts when the mouth closes or puckers up.

Orbicularis oris

15

Pulls lower lip inferiorly

Pulls upper lip superiorly as if a person is sneezing or snarling

Depressor labii inferioris

Levator labii superioris

16

Pulls corners of mouth superiorly and laterally. Works with zygomaticus major and minor in smiling

Levator anguli oris

17

Tenses the skin of the neck and pulls lower lip inferiorly.

Platysma muscle

18

Compresses the cheek against the teeth when chewing

Buccinator muscle

19

When the facial nerve is inflamed and compressed, muscles on the same side are paralyzed, may be idiopathic. Prednisone used to reduce swelling, level and timing of recovery varies.

Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis, also known as Bell Palsy

20

Move mandible at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Innervated by CN VIII

Muscles of mastication

Four paired muscles: temporals, masster, and lateral and medial pterygoids

21

Primary curves of the spine. The only ones present in the newborn.

Thoracic and sacral curvatures

22

Curves in the spine that help to shift trunk weight over the legs.

Cervical, appears when the child is able to hold up their head at 3-4 months.
Lumbar, appears when the child is learning to sit, stand, and walk by the first year of life.

23

Exaggerated thoracic curvature that produces a humpback look. May result from osteoporosis.

Kyphosis

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Exaggerated lumbar curvature that may result from added abdominal weight.

Lordosis

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Abnormal lateral spinal curvature that may require a back brace or surgery.

Scoliosis

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Posterior to the body of the vertebra, composed of two pedicles and two laminae

Vertebral arch

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Originating from the posterolateral margins of the vertebral body

Pedicle

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Extending posteromedially from the posterior edge of the pedicle

Laminae

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Has outer ring of fibrocartilage, annulus fibrosis.
Has inner gelatinous region, nucleus pulposus

Intervertebral disks, stabilization

30

What do the transverse foramina in the the transverse process of the cervical vertebra house?

Vertebral artery and vein

31

Vertebra that supports the head. It has no body or spinous process. Superior articular facets for articulation with the occipital condyles. Anterior and posterior tubercles.

Atlas cervical vertebra

(cervical have kidney-bean shaped bodies)

32

Movement of C1 and occipital allows for?
Movement of C1 and C2 allows for?

Nodding of the head

Shaking

33

Have heart-shaped bodies. Distinguished by the presence of costal facets on the lateral side of the body and sides of transverse processes. Head of rib articulates with demifacet. Tubercle of rib articulates with costal facets on transverse processes.

Thoracic vertebrae

T11 and T12 lacking transverse costal facets

34

Narrow portion of the bone projecting inferiorly

Apex

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Broad, superior surface of the sacrum. Lateral sacral curvature more pronounced in males.

Base

Sacrum completely fused by age 20-30

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Permit passage of nerves to the pelvic organs and gluteals

Anterior and posterior sacral foramina

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Dorsal ridge formed by fusion of spinous processes

Median sacral crest

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Site of articulation between the sacrum and the coxae of the pelvic girdle. Forms strong sacroiliac joint.

Auricular surface

39

Nucleus pulposus protruding into or through the annulus fibrosis. Produces a bulging disk of contents into the vertebral canal. Pinches the spinal cord or neves.

Herniated disks
Cervical and lumbar most injured

40

Flat bone forming anterior midline of the thoracic wall

Sternum

41

Widestand most superior portion of the sternum

Manubrium

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Articulate sternum with left and right clavicles

Clavicular notches

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Articulations for the first ribs' costal cartilages

Costal notches

44

Longest part of the sternum. Costal cartilages from ribs 2-7 attach here. Articulates with manubrium at sternal angle.

Sternum body

The articulation is an important landmark for palpitation and counting ribs. Costal cartilages of second ribs attach here.

45

At the tip of sternum. Doesn't ossify until age 40.

Xiphoid

46

Connect individually to the sternum by cartilaginous extensions, termed costal cartilages.

True ribs (1-7)

47

Ribs with costal cartilages not attached directly to the sternum

False ribs (8-12)
Costal cartilage of 8-10 fused to that of rib 7. Indirectly attached to sternum.
Ribs 11-12 without a connection to the sternum, called floating ribs

48

Part of the rib with articular facet for transverse process of thoracic vertebra

Tubercle

49

Site where the tubular shaft beings to curve on the rib

Along the inferior internal border, makes the path of nerves and blood vessels

Angle

Costal groove

50

Work with the sternocleidomastoid to flex the neck. Elevate first and second ribs during forced inhalation.

Scalene muscles, anterior, middle, posterior

Anterolateral neck muscles flex the head and neck

51

Newborn with shortened sternocleidomastoid, may persist into childhood. From birth trauma or prenatal position. Head tilts to affected side and chin to unaffected side.

Congenital Muscular Torticollis

Physical therapy, botulinum toxin that impairs contraction of the affected muscle

52

Muscles that work to extend he head and/or neck

Posterior neck muscles
Trapezius primary function is to help move the pectoral girdle
Splenius capitus, splenius cervicis, semispinalis capitis, longissimus capitis

53

O: Vertebra C7-T6
I: Occipital bone, mastoid process of temporal bone

Splenius capitus
A: When controlled bilaterally, extend neck. When controlled unilaterally, turn head and neck to same side

54

Erector spinae muscles, most laterally placed. Has cervical, thoracic, and lumbar parts.

Iliocostalis group

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Erector spine muscles medial to the iliocostalis group. Inserts on vertebrae transverse processes. Composed of capitis, cervical and thoracic parts.

Longissimus group

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Erector spinae muscles most medially placed. Inserts on the spinous processes of vertebrae. Composed on cervical and thoracic parts

Spinalis group

57

O: Ilium, ribs, vertebrae
I:Ribs, vertebre, and mastoid process of temporal bone

Erector spinae
A: Used to maintain posture and stand erect. If contracted together, helps extend the vertebral column. If contracted on one side, lateral flexion toward that side.

58

Muscles of reparation that extend inferomedially from superior rib to adjacent inferior rib. Elevates ribs during inspiration, expanding cavity. Movement like lifting a bucket handle.

External intercostals

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Muscles of respiration deep to external intercostals. Fibers at right angles to external intercostals. Depresses ribs during forced expiration.

Internal intercostals

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Muscle of perspiration that is internally placed, dome-shaped muscle. Partitions thoracic and abdominal actives, associated with breathing. Fibers converting toward a fibrous central tendon the is pulled inferiorly. Increases vertical dimensions of thoracic cavity.

Diaphragm

61

Muscular along lateral abdominal wall. Superficial, fibers directed inferiomedially. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly. Becomes cordlike inguinal ligament inferiorly.

External oblique

62

Immediately deep to the external oblique. Fibers projecting superiomedially. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly.

Internal oblique

63

Deepest abdominal muscle, fibers projecting transversely. Forms aponeurosis anteriorly.

Transverse abdominis

64

Long muscle extending vertically along the entire length of the anteromedial abdominal wall. Petitioned into four segments by fibrous tendinous intersections.

Rectus abdominus

Enclosed by fibrous rectus sheath (formed from aponeuroses of external and internal oblique, transversus muscles. Connected by linea alba fibrous strip.