Histology, Ch 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology, Ch 4 Deck (30):
1

Allows substances to diffuse across quickly. Lines air sacs, outer boundary of serous membranes, kidney tubules, blood vessels

Simple squamous epithelium

2

Large, central nucleus. Relatively thin so that substances can diffuse across quickly. Certain kidney tubules and respiratory passages, ducts of many glands, thyroid gland

Simple cuboidal epithelium

3

Things can diffuse across but it's generally too thick to be efficient. Found in upper respiratory passages and the nasal cavity, where it's ciliated.

Pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

4

Apical layers that lack nuclei, with cells that are no longer living. Filled with keratin and resistant to friction. Outer layer of skin.

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

5

Found in organs that require protection from mechanical abrasion but need to retain moist surfaces. Mouth, throat, lungs, esophagus, anus, vagina

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

6

Increase membrane surface area for absorption. Much smaller than?

Microvilli, which are smaller than cilia

7

Typical function is excretion. Kidney tubules, sweat glands.

Simple cuboidal epithelium

8

Has goblet cells, microvilli, nucleus near basement membrane. Stomach and intestine lining.

Simple columnar epithelium

9

Stratified. Cells change shape as bladder fills.

Transitional epithelium

10

Voluntary movements, cells/fibers striated, multinucleate, nuclei are peripheral. Attached to bones of skeleton and the skin

Skeletal muscle

11

Non-striated because myofilaments are not arranged into bundles. Walls of most viscera (organs) such as stomach, intestines, urinary bladder

Smooth muscle

12

Wall of heart. Striated, multinucleate, intercalated discs, tight junctions between adjacent cells, fibers/cells can branch

Cardiac muscle

13

Cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses. Consists of soma, densities, axons

Neurons

14

Cells that nourish, support, and protect neurons. Over 90% of cells in the brain.

Neuroglia. Glial cells.

15

Contains large amount of tissue fluid. Collagenous and elastic fibers, cell types include macrophages and fibroblasts. Around blood vessels, superficial fascia

Loose connective (areolar)

16

Adipocytes with large triglyceride vacuoles. Superficial fascia, around organs. Connective.

Adipose

17

Forms dermis of skin, perichondrium, periosteum. Similar to areolar but more tightly packed with more collagen. Main cell type is fibroblast

Dense irregular connective

18

Mostly collagenous fibers, main cell is fibroblast. Collagen fibers packed in tight parallel bundles, with fibroblasts squeezed between. Tendons, ligaments, fascia, and aponeuroses

Dense regular connective

19

Chondroblasts produce a firm ground substance called chondrine. Chondrocytes in lacunae. A vascular and surrounded by perichondrium.

Cartilage

20

Collagenous fibers closely packed, individual fibers cannot be seen. Matrix is glassy. Embryonic skeleton, costal cartilage, and caps on long bones.

Hyaline cartilage

21

Similar to hyaline but contains elastic fibers in the matrix making it very flexible. Outer ear, epiglottis

Elastic cartilage

22

Collagenous fibers visible with light microscope. Compressible, acts as shock absorber. Intervertebral discs, symphysis in pubis

Fibrocartilage (fibrous cartilage)

23

Matrix of calcium salts and collagenous fibers. Osteoblasts in lacunae. Haversian canal surrounded by rings of matrix called lamellar. Canaliculi connect lacunae. Vascular. Blood vessels travel though the canals.

Bone

24

Fluid matrix called plasma consisting mainly of water and proteins. Erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes

Blood

25

Long, straight polysaccharide chains. Negative charges of sugars attract positive ions in the ECF, creating a concentration gradient within the ECF that draws water out of cells and blood vessels by osmosis and traps it within the ECM.

Glycosaminoglycans
GAGS

26

GAGS bound to a protein core. Thousands of these can bind to a very long GAG, forming what? The size of this helps make the ECM firmer, acts as a barrier to diffusion which protects the underlying tissues from invasion

Proteoglycans
Proteoglycan aggregates

27

Glycoproteins of different types. Responsible for adhering cells to each other and into their places within the ECM. Bind to surface proteins as well as protein fibers and proteoglycans.

Cell-adhesion molecules
CAMs

28

Make up 20-25% of all protein within the body. Very resistant to tension and pressure.

Collagen fibers

29

May be stretched one and a half times their resting length without breaking, a property called what? When stretching force is removed they return to their original length, a property called what?

Elastic fibers.
Extensibility, elasticity.
Elastin allows the fiber to stretch, whereas the glycoproteins support and organize the elastin.

30

Results from abnormal collagen fibers. Recurrent joint dislocations, hyperextensibility of the skin, fragility of the blood vessels, easy bruising, etc.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome