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Flashcards in Appendicular Skeleton Deck (35):

Largest diarthrosis in the human body, a complex hinge joint. Allows flexion and extension. Some rotation and lateral gliding when the joint is flexed.

Knee joint.

Inherently unstable


A pair of C-shaped fibrocartilage pads that sit on the tibial condyles. Provide shock absorption and cushioning between articular cartilages of the femoral and tibial condyles.

Medial and lateral meniscus


Connects the femur with the tibia and attaches to the medial meniscus. Prevents hyperabduction of the knee, the tibia from moving far too laterally on the femur.

Tibial collateral ligament (medial collateral)


Links the femur to the fibula and prevents the tibia from moving far too medially on the femur (hyperadduction)

Fibular collateral ligament (lateral collateral)


Ligaments on either side of the knee that tighten when the knee is extended to provide additional stabilization during weight bearing and walking.

Collateral ligaments

Tibial collateral and fibular collateral


Ligaments that limit motion of the knee joint in the anterior and posterior directions. Named for their tibial attachments.

Cruciate ligaments

Anterior and posterior


Ligament that runs from an anterior insertion site on the tibia to the posterior aspect of the femur. When the knee joint is extended, this tightens to prevent hyperextension and to prevent the tibia from moving too far anteriorly on the femur.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)


Ligament that travels from a posterior position on the tibia to the anterior femur. When this ligament tightens during knee flexion, it prevents the tibia from displacing itself posteriorly from the femur.

Posterior cruciate ligament


Long, S-shaped bone that lays across the superior thorax. Extends between the manubirum and acromion of the scapula.

Sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum forming the sternoclavicular joint
The acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula forming the acromioclavicular joint


Broad, flat triangles that articulate with the arm and collarbone.



Broad anterior surface f the scapula where the sub scapular muscle is located

Notch in the superior border that is a passageway for supra scapular nerve and blood vessels

Subscapular fossa

Suprascapular notch


Ridge across the posterior surface of the scapula body. Separates two regions of fossa

Scapular spine

Supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatous fossa
Infraspinatus muscle in the infraspinatous fossa


Smaller, more anterior projection site for muscle attachment in the glenoid cavity

Coracoid process


Large posterior process forming shoulder's bony tip. Continuous with the spine of the scapula


Articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint


Anterior thoracic muscles

Pectorals major helps depress and protract the scapula
Serrates anterior stabilizes and protracts the scapula
Subclavius stabilizes and depresses the scapula


Posterior thoracic muscles

Levator scapulae elevates and inferiorly rotates the scapula
Rhomboid minor and major help elevate, retract, and inferiorly rotate the scapula
Trapezius can elevate, depress, retract, or rotate scapula


Largest and longest bone of the upper limb. Articulates proximally with the glenoid cavity of the scapula at the shoulder. Articualtes distally with the radius and ulna at the elbow.




A bulge in the shaft of the humerus that extends along the lateral surface for half the length

Deltoid tuberosity


Adjacent to deltoid tuberosity on the humerus where the radial nerve and some blood vessels travel

Radial groove


Bony projections on the distal side of the humerus. Provide surfaces for muscle attachment. Palpated on sides of elbow. Ulnar nerve traveling posterior to the medial

medial and lateral epicondyles


Joint supported by skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Ball and socket diarthrosis. Between head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula

Glenohumeral shoulder joint

Thin,loose joint capsule with coracohumeral ligament and three glenogumeral ligaments


Muscles that work as a group to hold head go humerus in glenoid cavity. Tendons encircle joint and fuse with articular capsule. Inferior portion lacks muscles and is the most easily injured.

Rotator cuff muscles

Subscapularis, teres minor, tendon of infraspinatous muscle, tendon of supraspinatous muscle


Prime mover of the glenohumeral. Thick, fan-shaped muscle on superior thorax. Prime arm flexor, adducts, medially rotates

Pectorals major

O:medial clavicle, costal cartilages of ribs 2-6, body of sternum
I: Lateral part of intertubercular groove of humerus


Prime mover of the glenohumeral. Broad triangular muscle on inferior back. Prime arm extensor, adducts, medially rotates.

Latissimus dorsi

O: Spinous process of T7-T12, ribs 8-12, iliac crest, scapula's inferior angle
I: Intertubercular groove of humerus


Prime abductor of the arm, forms contour of the shoulder. Anterior fibers flex and medially rotate the arm, lateral fibers abduct the arm, posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate the arm



Synergistic with pectoralis major, flexes and adducts the arm



Synergistic with latissimus doors. Extends, adducts, medially rotates the arm

Teres major


Provides strength and stability of glenohumeral joint. Attaches scapula to humerus.

Rotator cuff muscles


Shoulder appears flattened and squared off, common due to joint instability. Usually occurs when fully abducted humerus is struck hard. Humeral head anterior and inferior to glenohumeral joint capsule

Dislocation of the glenohumeral joint


Can be caused by repetitive use and falling on the shoulder or lifting too heavy of an object. Supraspinatus most commonly involved. Baseball. Swelling, pain, tenderness.

Rotator cuff injuries


Large two-headed muscle on anterior humerus. One of the two primary flexors of the forearm. Supinator of the forearm when elbow is flexed. Weakly helps flex the humerus

Biceps brachii


Deep to the brachii, most powerful flexor of the forearm

On the anterolateral forearm, synergistic in elbow flexion




Large three-headed muscle on the posterior arm, major extensor of the forearm. Also helps extend humerus.

Weak elbow extensor, crosses posterolateral region of the elbow.

Triceps brachii



Proximal end of the ulna that forms the posterior bump of the elbow. Posterosuperior lip of trochlear notch. Articulates with the trochlea of the humerus

Inferior lip of trochlear notch

Olecranon process

Coronoid process


Prominent styloid process that attaches to articular disc between the forearm and wrist

Ulnar head