Flashcards in Bovine Deck (459)
What is the optimum range for glucose in the plasma in cows?
the optimum range in plasma is over 3.0mmol/litre. This is different from values in whole blood or serum neither of which are as accurate. Glucose is not as sensitive to changes in energy balance as BHB or NEFA because of homeostatic control.
What does it mean if a cow has high BHB/NEFA and low glucose (or normal glucose)?
This indicates a dietary energy problem but not necessarily a dietary deficiency. Uncorrected this situation constrains milk and milk protein yield and fertility. Resistance to disease may be reduced. more supplementary feed may be required. Other possible causes of this situation are single supplementary feds to large at milking or at other times, too little forage available conserved or grazing, access to forage restricted, poor quality forage, unpalatable forage poor handling of forage allowing deterioration and loss of nutrients, forage too low in fibre, an excess of digestible undegradable protein or water deprivation. May also be possible that there is no dietary energy problem i.e where milk yields are good and condition is not being lost the reason being that blood testing was carried out too close to feeding or to major diet changes.
What is the optimum range of urea nitrogen in the blood for cows?
1.7mmol/litre. Urea often analysed for interpretation is no different provided the correct range is used. Urea is 2.14 times ureaN. blood ureaN reflects very well the intake of effective rumen degradable protein ERDP and its balance with fermentable metabolisable energy. If a cow has low urea N values in their blood this shows inadequate ERDP in the rumen and erpresents a situation inhibiting productivity but it does not distinguish between a low dietary content and a low intake of a diet containing an adequate proportion of ERDP.
What are the optimum values of albumin in the blood?
optimum over 30 g/litre. Albumin is a protein which is synthesised by the liver. When levels are low this reflects liver health or a poor amino acid supply from the diet. this effect is usually long term.
What are the optimum levels of globulin in the blood?
Below 50g/l. Globulins are antibodies of the type formed in response to chronic inflammation.
What is the lower critical temperature of a calf?
at 2m/s air speed lower critical temp of 4 week old calf is 10C.
What age are calves usually infected with rotavirus? What are the typical clinical signs?
8-14 days old. Acute onset diarrhoea, yellow/green faeces, reluctance to stand and suck, mild depression and salivation.
How is rotavirus diagnosed?
PAGE test on fresh faeces. Sample four or more calves for herd problem.
What age does coronavirus cause diarrhoea in calves?
up to 20 days old.
What are the clinical signs of corona virus?
Diarrhoea, depression, faeces containing mucus and milk curds. The disease can rapidly progress to weakness, recumbency, severe dehydration and death. Coronavirus infections cause diarrhoea in calves up to 20 days old.
How does coronavirus differ from rotavirus?
Coronavirus replicates in the epithelial cells causing severe damage in the small intestine and progresses caudally into the colon.
What are the clinical signs of e coli infection?
Yellow/white diarrhoea which affects calves 1-3 days old, without mucous or blood
what is best antibiotic treatment for septicaemia?
What are the clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis?
beef calves age 10-21 days, profuse yellow green diarrhoea with much mucous present, mild dehydration but calf rapidly looses condition.
Which stain is used to identify cryptosporidiosis?
What is licensed for prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis?
Halofuginone lactate. For prevention calves should be dosed for seven consecutive days starting within one to two days of birth.
What are the signs of coccidiosis?
There is a sudden onset of profuse foetid diarrhoea containing mucous and flecks of fresh blood. There is considerable straining of the perineum and tail. Straining with a partial eversion of the rectum which may result in prolapse, is characteristic of severe infections.
How do you work out how much to supplement a calf with bicarbonate
base deficit x bicarbonate space x dehydrated calf weight
What is thromboembolic meningo encephalitis?
common in the USA following Histophilus somni respiratory disease. Animals are obtunded, ataxic, sternally recumbent. Hopeless prognosis.
what is the cause of pustular vulvovaginitis in cows?
Bovine herpes virus, also the same cause of IBR.
What are the clinical signs of IBr?
febrile, purulent ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivae are oedematous, tear staining of the face, very depressed, no oral lesions but drooling of saliva, small erosions on the nasal septum leading to diptheritic plaques.
How is IBR diagnosed?
Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) from cells from the corneal sac.
What are the clinical signs of BRSV?
increased respiratory rate, frequent coughing, serous nasal discharge, no ocular involvement. secondary bacterial invasion frequently occurs. Rectal temperature varies depending on whether secondary infection present.
How is BRSV diagnosed?
BAL to obtain virus identified by FAT. Or paired serology 2-3 weeks apart.
What does rispoval 4 vaccine contain?
BRSV, IBR, Pi3 and BVD.
What is enzootic/cuffing pneumonia?
Mycoplasma dispar may act in conjunction with PI3 infection. Insidious onset disease more commonly encountered in young weaned dairy replacement heifers where young susceptible calves are mixed with or placed in pens adjacent to older recovered cattle.
What does M bovis infection in cattle cause?
Mastitis, pneumonia, polyarthritis
What is a pulmonary thrombo embolism from the caudal vena cava ?
an uncommon condition which develops following the haematogenous spread of a large number of septic emboli from a thrombus ini the caudal vena cava. Pulmonary arterial thombo embolism occurs with eventual fatal rupture of pulmonary arterial aneurysm.
What is the main bacterial isolate from cases of chronic suppurative pulmonary disease?