Brain, Meninges, Dural Sinuses, and Cranial Fossae Flashcards Preview

SP16 Anatomy Exam 2 > Brain, Meninges, Dural Sinuses, and Cranial Fossae > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain, Meninges, Dural Sinuses, and Cranial Fossae Deck (97):
1

what are the 3 functions of the brain?

stimulates movement
maintains homeostasis
produces thought

2

how does the brain stimulate movements?

sensory and motor inputs

3

how does the brain maintain homeostasis

between internal and external environment

4

how does the brain produce though?

intelligence related processes (includes memory)

5

what is the central sulcus between?

frontal and parietal lobes

6

what is the parieto-occipital sulcus between?

parietal and occipital lobes

7

what is the lateral fissure/sulcus between?

temporal and frontal lobes

8

what is the longitudinal fissure between

2 cerebral hemispheres

9

what is the function of frontal lobe

primary motor and personality area

10

what is the function of parietal lobe

primary sensory and integration area

11

what is the occipital lobe function

primary visual area

12

what is the function of temporal lobe

auditory, speech, olfactory, and memory

13

what is the function of cerebellum

fine motor coordination

14

what is the function of pons

CN nuclei and tracts between cerebrum and cerebellum

15

what is the function of medulla oblongata

blood pressure and respiration

16

what does the corpus callosum connect?

fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres

17

what is the function of thalamus

relay station for all sense except olfaction

18

what is the function of hypothalamus

center for autonomic and endocrine functions

19

what is the function of the pituitary gland

"master" gland for homeostasis

20

what is the function of pineal gland

center for sleep-wake cycles

21

what is the function of mammillary bodies

nuclei related to emotions

22

what are the 3 fossae of cranial vault

anterior
middle
posterior

23

what does the anterior fossa hold

frontal lobes

24

what does the middle fossa hold

temporal lobes

25

what does the posterior cranial fossa hold

cerebellum and brainstem

26

what bones are with the anterior cranial fossa

frontal
ethmoid
sphenoid

27

what bones are with the middle cranial fossa

sphenoid
parietal
temporal - petrous portion

28

what bones are with the posterior cranial fossa

temporal
parietal
occipital

29

what are the 4 features of the anterior cranial fossa

cribriform plate
foramen cecum
anterior ethmoidal foramen
posterior ethmoidal foramen

30

what nerve is associated with the cribriform plate

olfactory bulb and olfactory nerve

31

what vein is associated with the foramen cecum

emissary vein from nasal cavity

32

what nerve is associated with anterior ethmoidal foramen

anterior ethmoidal nerve, artery, and vein

33

what is associated with posterior ethmoidal foramen

posterior ethmoidal nerve, artery, and vein

34

what goes through the optic cancal

CN II and ophthalmic artery

35

what goes through the superior orbital fissure

CN III, IV, V1, VI, and ophthamic veins

36

what goes through foramen rotundum

CN V2

37

what goes through foramen ovale

CN V3 and accessory meningeal a

38

goes through foramen spinosum?

middle meningeal a

39

goes through foramen lacerum?

fibrocartilage

40

what passes through the internal acoustic meatus

CN VII, CN VIII

41

what goes through the jugular foramen

internal jugular vein, CN IX, X, XI

42

what goes through the foramen magnum

spinal cord and vertebral vessels
accessory spinal

43

what goes through the hypoglossal canal

CN XII

44

what are the 3 meninges of the brain

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

45

what are the 2 layers of the dura mater

periosteal layer
meningeal layer

46

what is the rough outer layer, forming the endocranium and inner periosteum

periosteal layer

47

what is the smooth inner layer that covers arachnoid mater

meningeal layer

48

what is found between cerebral hemispheres

falx cerebri (longitudinal fissure)

49

what is between cerebelli hemispheres

falx cerebelli

50

what is found between cerebrum and cerebellum

tentorium cerebelli (tranverse fissure)

51

what is found between brain and pituitary gland

diaphragma sellae

52

what are the dural venous sinuses

superior and inferior sagittal sinuses
sigmoid sinuses
straight sinus
sphenoparietal sinuses
carvernous sinuses
superior and inferior petrosal sinuses
confluence and transverse sinuses

53

what passes through the cavernous sinus

internal carotid and CN VI

54

what nerves are in the lateral wall of cavernous sinus

CN III, IV, V1, and V2

55

what can rupture with skull base fractures?

ICA

56

if the ICA ruptures, what does that result in?

arteriovenous fistula

57

what covers all fissures and sulci of the brain?

arachnoid mater and pia mater

58

what is deep to the arachnoid mater?

subarachnoid space

59

what does the dura mater contain?

vessels and sinuses

60

what 3 things are in the subarachnoid space?

CSF
cerebral and cerebellar blood vessels

61

what does the superior cerebral vv drain into?

superior sagittal sinus

62

what are pierced through the pia mater

vessels that supply the brain

63

what is cavernous sinus thrombosis?

clot formation

64

what prevents build-up of pressure on brain?

passive pressure gradient

65

what is a branch of maxillary aa?

middle meningeal vessels

66

where do the middle meningeal vessels drain to?

pterygoid venous plexuses

67

where are the vessels of middle meningeal vessels embedded

outer layer of dura mater

68

what do the middle meningeal vessels supply

dura mater and skull

69

what are the 2 branches of middle meningeal vessels

parietal branch and frontal branch

70

which branch of the middle meningeal vessel is posterior?

parietal branch

71

what can a tear in the middle meningeal artery lead to?

epidural hematoma

72

where is the bleeding of a epidural hematoma?

arterial bleeding between dura mater and skull

73

fractures through ____ of skull produce tearing in anterior branch (frontal branch) of middle meningeal artery

pterion

74

where is the subdural space?

potential space between dura and arachnoid mater

75

rupture of ___ vein produces subdural hematoma

cerebral vein

76

what are the 2 systems that provide blood to brain?

internal carotid arterial system
vertebrobasilar arterial system

77

what is the anastomosis of the 2 systems that provide blood to the brain?

circle of willis

78

where does the internal carotid artery enter?

carotid canal

79

what sinus does the internal carotid artery enter?

cavernous sinus

80

what part of the brain does the internal carotid artery supply?

anterior and middle brain

81

where does the vertebral artery enter the brain?

transverse foramina

82

after the vertebra artery goes through the transverse foramina, where does it go?

foramen magnum

83

what does the vertebral artery form?

basilar artery

84

what does the vertebral artery supply?

posterior brain

85

what are the 6 arteries of the circle of willis

Anterior communicating a.
Anterior cerebral aa.
Internal Carotid aa.
Middle cerebral aa.
Posterior communicating aa.
Posterior cerebral aa.

86

what is a branch of the internal carotid artery

ophthalmic artery

87

what does the internal carotid artery anastomose with

posterior communicating artery

88

what does the internal carotid artery terminate as?

middle and anterior cerebral artery

89

what branches come off of basilar artery

inferior cerebellar a
labyrinthine a
pontine a
superior cerebellar a

90

what does the basilar spilt to form?

posterior cerebral a

91

what branches does the vertebral a give off

anterior and posterior spinal a
posterior inferior cerebellar a

92

what does the anterior cerebral a supply

anterior/medial cerebrum

93

what does the middle cerebral a supply

anterior/lateral cerebrum

94

what does the posterior cerebral artery supply

posterior/inferior/ cerebrum

95

what does the superior cerebellar a supply

superior cerebellum

96

what does the anterior inferior cerebellar a suppply

anterior/inferior cerebellum

97

what does the posterior inferior cerebellar a supply

posterior/inferior cerebellum