Flashcards in Breast week Deck (115)
Describe the surface anatomy of the breast
Between ribs 2 and 6
Describe the anatomy of the breast briefly
Sits infant of deep fascia and the pectorals major muscle
Made up of 15-25 lobes, each containing ducts leading to the nipple
Fibrous and adipose tissue between lobes
Where do the suspensory ligaments attach and what is their function
Suspensory ligaments attach between skin and the pec major/ deep fascia
They support the breast tissue
What kinds of epithelium lined the lactiferous duct?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
What kinds of epithelium lines the acini?
Secretory epithelial cells (varies from cuboidal to columnar)
Outer layer of myoepithelial cells
What type of epithelium covers the nipple?
Keratinised squamous epithelium
What changes to breast tissue occur in pregnancy?
Reduced connective tissue and adipose tissue
Proliferation of secretory tissue
What changes to breast tissue occur with the menopause?
Secretory tissue degenerates, leaving only ducts
Reduced connective tissue
Describe what is meant by apocrine secretions
Lipid droplets are surrounded by a membrane which carry a small amount of cytoplasm with it
Describe what is meant by merocrine secretions
Mastalgia is usually cyclical. When does the pain tend to be most intense?
During the immediate premenstrual phase of the cycle
What is the usual management for mastalgia?
Well fitting bra and exercise
What is the most common cause of spontaneous nipple discharge?
What is the main advantage of breast histopathology over breast cytopathology?
Allows for the identification of invasive cancers vs carcinoma in situ
(rather than just identifying something as cytologically malignant)
What are 4 examples of developmental anomalies of the breast?
Accessory breast tissue
What are some inflammatory examples of benign breast disease?
List some benign breast tumours
What is a galactocele?
How is it managed?
Palpable milk-filled cyst most commonly associated with pregnancy or lactation
Diagnosed and drained by FNA
What is gynaecomastia?
Breast development in the male
(ductal growth without lobular involvement)
What can cause gynaecomastia in males?
Exogenous or endogenous hormones
Fibrocystic change is very common in women. How does it present?
Sudden pain / cyclical pain
How is fibrocystic change managed?
Reassure that they usually resolve after the menopause
Excise if necessary
What kind of epithelium lines cysts?
Describe the gross pathological appearance of cysts associated with fibrocystic change
Blue domed cysts with pale fluid
What is a hamartoma?
Lesions composed of normal breast cell types but present in an abnormal proportion or distribution
What is the most common benign breast condition?
Describe how fibroadenoma presents
Painless, firm, mobile mass
Which breast condition is described as the "breast mouse"
Because the mass is small firm and mobile like a little mouse
Fibroadenomas are described as "biphasic", what does this mean?
Contain both epithelium and stromal elements