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Flashcards in Gynaecological disorders Deck (104)
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1

Define menorrhagia

Prolonged and increased menstrual flow

2

Define metrorrhagia

Regular intermenstrual bleeding

3

Define polymenorrhoea

Menses occurring at <21 day intervals

4

Define polymenorrhagia

Increased bleeding and frequent cycle

5

Define amenorrhoea

Primary = failure of menarche by age 16


Secondary = cessation of periods for >6 months in a patient who has previously menstruated

6

Define oligomenorrhoea

Menses at intervals >35 days / <9 times per year

7

What are some of the organic causes of menorrhagia?

Fibroids
Polyps
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Malignancy
e.t.c

8

What are some of the systemic causes of menorrhagia?

Endocrine disorders
Liver disorders
Renal disorders
Disorders of haemostasis
Drugs - anticoagulants

9

What is meant by 'dysfunctional uterine bleeding'?

Menorrhagia in the absence of underlying pathology

10

Anovulatory DUB is more likely to occur in which patients?

Patients at the extremes of reproductive age and obese women

11

Ovulatory DUB is more likely to occur in patients of what age?

Women aged 35-35 years

12

What are some of the management options for DUB?

Medical therapy: Progestogens, COCP e.t.c

Progesterone releasing IUCD

Endometrial resection/ hysterectomy

13

Which micro-organisms are associated with causing endometriosis?

Neisseria

Chlamydia

TB

CMV

HSV

14

How do endometrial polyps present?

Usually ASYMPTOMATIC but may present with BLEEDING or DISCHARGE

Occurs around and after the menopause

15

What is adenomyosis and how does it present?

Endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium

Menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea

16

What is leiomyoma and how does it present?

Benign tumour of smooth muscle (can be found at locations other than the uterus)

Menorrhagia, infertility, mass effect and pain

17

Endometrial thickness can be determines by vaginal ultrasound. What thickness is an indication for biopsy to be performed?

>4mm in postmenopausal women
16mm in premenopausal women

18

What is meant by the term vaginismus?

Involuntary tightening of the muscles around the vagina when penetration is attempted

19

What is meant by the term dyspareunia?

Pain during intercourse

20

What are the differentials for a uterine mass?

Endometrial cancer

Fibroids

Pregnancy

21

What are the differentials for a tubal swelling?

Ectopic pregnancy

Hydrosalpinx

Pyosalpinx

Paratubal cysts

22

What are the differentials for an ovarian mass?

Ovarian tumour/ cancer

Ovarian cysts

23

What are the differentials for an ACUTE presentation of a pelvic mass?

Cyst rupture

Fibroid degeneration

Ectopic pregnancy

24

What are endometrial polyps?

Benign outgrowths of stroma and glands

Often occur around the menopause

25

What hormone is responsible for endometrial hyperplasia?

Oestrogen causes endometrial proliferation

Progesterone usually causes shed at menstruation, so unopposed oestrogen causes hyperplasia

26

What is the biggest risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia?

Obesity

27

How is endometrial hyperplasia managed?

Mirena coil

28

What is the most common type of endometrial carcinoma?

Adenocarcinoma

29

What underlying conditions should you consider in young women presenting with endometrial cancer?

PCOS

Lynch syndrome - HNPCC

30

How does endometrial cancer present?

Post menopausal bleeding

Heavy or irregular bleeding in pre-menopausal women