Flashcards in Gynaecological disorders Deck (104)
Prolonged and increased menstrual flow
Regular intermenstrual bleeding
Menses occurring at <21 day intervals
Increased bleeding and frequent cycle
Primary = failure of menarche by age 16
Secondary = cessation of periods for >6 months in a patient who has previously menstruated
Menses at intervals >35 days / <9 times per year
What are some of the organic causes of menorrhagia?
Pelvic inflammatory disease
What are some of the systemic causes of menorrhagia?
Disorders of haemostasis
Drugs - anticoagulants
What is meant by 'dysfunctional uterine bleeding'?
Menorrhagia in the absence of underlying pathology
Anovulatory DUB is more likely to occur in which patients?
Patients at the extremes of reproductive age and obese women
Ovulatory DUB is more likely to occur in patients of what age?
Women aged 35-35 years
What are some of the management options for DUB?
Medical therapy: Progestogens, COCP e.t.c
Progesterone releasing IUCD
Endometrial resection/ hysterectomy
Which micro-organisms are associated with causing endometriosis?
How do endometrial polyps present?
Usually ASYMPTOMATIC but may present with BLEEDING or DISCHARGE
Occurs around and after the menopause
What is adenomyosis and how does it present?
Endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium
Menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea
What is leiomyoma and how does it present?
Benign tumour of smooth muscle (can be found at locations other than the uterus)
Menorrhagia, infertility, mass effect and pain
Endometrial thickness can be determines by vaginal ultrasound. What thickness is an indication for biopsy to be performed?
>4mm in postmenopausal women
16mm in premenopausal women
What is meant by the term vaginismus?
Involuntary tightening of the muscles around the vagina when penetration is attempted
What is meant by the term dyspareunia?
Pain during intercourse
What are the differentials for a uterine mass?
What are the differentials for a tubal swelling?
What are the differentials for an ovarian mass?
Ovarian tumour/ cancer
What are the differentials for an ACUTE presentation of a pelvic mass?
What are endometrial polyps?
Benign outgrowths of stroma and glands
Often occur around the menopause
What hormone is responsible for endometrial hyperplasia?
Oestrogen causes endometrial proliferation
Progesterone usually causes shed at menstruation, so unopposed oestrogen causes hyperplasia
What is the biggest risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia?
How is endometrial hyperplasia managed?
What is the most common type of endometrial carcinoma?
What underlying conditions should you consider in young women presenting with endometrial cancer?
Lynch syndrome - HNPCC