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Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (176)
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1

What are some of the causes of bleeding in early pregnancy?

Implantation bleeding
Chorionic haematoma
Miscarriage
Ectopic pregnancy
Molar pregnancy
Infection

2

Describe implantation bleeding

Occurs when a fertilised egg implants into the uterine wall

Bleeding is limited and light brownish in colour

Occasionally mistaken as a period

Management; watchful waiting - usually settles

3

What is the primary symptom of miscarriage?

BLEEDING

4

What are some of the possible symptoms of miscarriage?

Bleeding

Period-like cramping pain

5

What are some of the possible causes of miscarriage?

Embryonic abnormality

Immunological conditions e.g APS

Infections e.g CMV/ rubella/ toxoplasmosis e.t.c

6

What are the different types of miscarriage?

Threatened miscarriage
Inevitable miscarriage
Incomplete miscarriage
Complete miscarriage
Early fetal demise

7

What is early fetal demise?

Pregnancy in-situ

No heartbeat

*can wait a couple of days to see if the fetus regains a heartbeat, the mother however may miscarry in this time

8

What is the management of miscarriage?

Emotional support

Haemodynamic stabilising

Anti D (for rhesus -ve mothers)

9

What are some of the causes of recurrent miscarriage (3+ pregnancy losses)

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Thrombophilia

Uterine abnormalities

10

What is the primary symptom of ectopic pregnancy?

PAIN

11

What are some of the possible symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?

Pain

Bleeding

Dizziness/ collapse

SOB (caused by internal bleeding)

*Peritonism causes rigidity and rebound tenderness

12

What might an ultrasound scan show in cases of ectopic pregnancy?

Empty uterus

Pseudo sac

Mass

Free fluid

13

What diagnosis should you always consider in early pregnancy presenting with pain?

Ectopic pregnancy

14

What is molar pregnancy?

Non-viable fertilised egg in the womb

15

What is the difference between a complete and partial mole?

COMPLETE MOLE
Egg without DNA
Only paternal DNA
No fetus

PARTIAL MOLE
Egg
1 reduplicated or 2 sperm- forms a triploidy with the egg May have a fetus attached

16

What are some of the causes of molar pregnancy?

Gestational trophoblastic disease

Nonviable fertilised egg

Overgrowth of placental tissue with chorionic villi swollen with fluid

17

How might a molar pregnancy present?

Hyperemesis

Bleeding and passage of "grape-like" tissue

Shortness of breath

18

What is the typical ultrasound appearance of a molar pregnancy?

'Snow storm appearance'

19

What is a chorionic haematoma?

Pooling of blood between the endometrium and the embryo due to separation

20

How does a chorionic haematoma present?

Bleeding

Cramping

Threatened miscarriage

21

What is hyperemesis gravidarum?

Excessive vomiting in pregnancy which alters QOL

22

What effects can hyperemesis gravidarum have on the body?

Dehydration

Electrolyte and nutritional misbalance

Weight loss

Altered liver function

Emotional instability

23

How is hyperemesis gravidarum managed?

Rehydration and electrolyte replacements

Nutritional and vitamin supplements e.g thiamine and pabrinex

NG feeding

24

What is the first line anti-emetic for hyperemesis gravidarum?

Cyclizine

25

What is the second line anti-emetic for hyperemesis gravidarum?

Ondansetron

26

HCG doubles by 50% in 48 hours with viable or inviable pregnancies?

Viable pregnancies

27

When is considered term?

37-42 weeks

90% of babies will be delivered in this time

28

When do women deliver with reference to their due date?

4% deliver on the date

60% deliver within the date

90% deliver within term

29

What screening should be done for the mother throughout pregnancy?

Diabetic eye screening and gestational diabetes

BBV and infections

Maternal anaemia

Pre-eclampsia

Urinalysis

Mental health

30

What screening should be done for the fetus during pregnancy?

Neural tube defects

Haemoglobin disorders

Growth

Aneuploidy