Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (176)
What are some of the causes of bleeding in early pregnancy?
Describe implantation bleeding
Occurs when a fertilised egg implants into the uterine wall
Bleeding is limited and light brownish in colour
Occasionally mistaken as a period
Management; watchful waiting - usually settles
What is the primary symptom of miscarriage?
What are some of the possible symptoms of miscarriage?
Period-like cramping pain
What are some of the possible causes of miscarriage?
Immunological conditions e.g APS
Infections e.g CMV/ rubella/ toxoplasmosis e.t.c
What are the different types of miscarriage?
Early fetal demise
What is early fetal demise?
*can wait a couple of days to see if the fetus regains a heartbeat, the mother however may miscarry in this time
What is the management of miscarriage?
Anti D (for rhesus -ve mothers)
What are some of the causes of recurrent miscarriage (3+ pregnancy losses)
What is the primary symptom of ectopic pregnancy?
What are some of the possible symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?
SOB (caused by internal bleeding)
*Peritonism causes rigidity and rebound tenderness
What might an ultrasound scan show in cases of ectopic pregnancy?
What diagnosis should you always consider in early pregnancy presenting with pain?
What is molar pregnancy?
Non-viable fertilised egg in the womb
What is the difference between a complete and partial mole?
Egg without DNA
Only paternal DNA
1 reduplicated or 2 sperm- forms a triploidy with the egg May have a fetus attached
What are some of the causes of molar pregnancy?
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Nonviable fertilised egg
Overgrowth of placental tissue with chorionic villi swollen with fluid
How might a molar pregnancy present?
Bleeding and passage of "grape-like" tissue
Shortness of breath
What is the typical ultrasound appearance of a molar pregnancy?
'Snow storm appearance'
What is a chorionic haematoma?
Pooling of blood between the endometrium and the embryo due to separation
How does a chorionic haematoma present?
What is hyperemesis gravidarum?
Excessive vomiting in pregnancy which alters QOL
What effects can hyperemesis gravidarum have on the body?
Electrolyte and nutritional misbalance
Altered liver function
How is hyperemesis gravidarum managed?
Rehydration and electrolyte replacements
Nutritional and vitamin supplements e.g thiamine and pabrinex
What is the first line anti-emetic for hyperemesis gravidarum?
What is the second line anti-emetic for hyperemesis gravidarum?
HCG doubles by 50% in 48 hours with viable or inviable pregnancies?
When is considered term?
90% of babies will be delivered in this time
When do women deliver with reference to their due date?
4% deliver on the date
60% deliver within the date
90% deliver within term
What screening should be done for the mother throughout pregnancy?
Diabetic eye screening and gestational diabetes
BBV and infections