Buzz words: Cardiology Flashcards Preview

Year 3 Medicine > Buzz words: Cardiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Buzz words: Cardiology Deck (71):
1

Anacrotic pulse
Breathlessness, syncope
Angina on exertion
Narrow pulse pressure, ejection systolic,
radiating to carotids

Aortic stenosis

2

Pink frothy sputum
Graham Steell murmur
Post-MI
Displaced, volume overloaded apex beat
Pansystolic radiating to axilla

Mitral Regurgitation

3

Barlow syndrome
Mid-systolic click, late systolic murmur

Mitral Prolapse

4

Pulsating uvula, decrescendo diastolic
IVDU
Collapsing pulse: de Musset’s, Duroziez,
Watson hammer pulse, Corrigan’s pulse,
Quinky’s sign, Traube’s sign
Displaced, volume-overloaded apex beat
Early diastolic, heard in expiration and the
lower sternal edge

Aortic Regurgitation

5

Large V waves in JVP
Pansystolic murmur at lower left sternal
edge

Tricuspid Regurgitation

6

Tapping apex beat
Loud first heart sound
Rumbling mid-diastolic murmur loudest at
apex

Mitral Stenosis

7

Muffled heart sounds
Lupus/malignancy

Pericardial Effusion

8

Positive valsalva manoeuvre + βB
Harsh ejection systolic murmur

HOCUM

9

Machine-like murmur
Bounding pulse, wide pulse pressure
Left subclavicular thrill

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

10

Dyspnoea, orthopnoea, PND
Fine inspiratory creps
↑BNP, (do stress echo if prev. MI)
Gold standard: transoesophageal echo
Cardiomegaly, bilateral pleural effusions,
alveolar oedema, kerley B lines and upper
lobe diversion

Heart Failure

11

IVDU
Tricuspid murmur
Petechiae, microvascular haematuria
Janeway lesions, splinter haemorrhages
Modified Duke Criteria

Infective Endocarditis

12

Irregularly irregular pulse
Absent P waves, absent A in JVP
Chaotic excitation
Old, palpitations, SOB, fatigue, syncope

Atrial Fibrillation

13

Narrow complex tachycardia
Look for 150bpm (ventricular) with a 2:1
block (atrial rate = 250-350bpm)
Saw-tooth appearance on ECG

Atrial Flutter

14

Broad complex
Previous MI

Ventricular Tachycardia

15

Pulseless, required cardioversion

Ventricular Fibrillation

16

Delta wave

Wolff-Parkinson White

17

Broad QRS
Uniform P waves with random QRS
Cannon A waves in JVP

Complete Heart Block

18

Collapse when running
Tearing pain to back
Connective tissue disorder

Dissected Aortic Aneurysm

19

Friction rub – walking on snow

Pericarditis
Male, post-MI
Worse lying down

20

Central, crushing chest pain
Radiating to jaw/left arm
MONA LISA

Myocardial Infarction

21

Sharp, pleuritic chest pain
Haemoptysis
OCP/long haul travel
Wells scoring system

Pulmonary Embolism

22

Anxiety, hypertension, weight loss

Phaeochromocytoma

23

Interscapular murmur
Decreased femoral pulses
Turner’s syndrome

Aortic Coarctation

24

HTN, polymyalgia, polyuria, polydipsia
↑Na, ↓K, normal renal function
↑ aldosterone, ↓ renin

Conn’s Syndrome

25

ANCA positive, histology diagnosis
Microaneurysms and MI

Polyarteritis Nodosa

26

ST depression and T wave inversion upon
exertion
Normal resting ECG
Exertional chest pain, radiating to jaw
Other CV risk factors e.g. smoking, fat

Stable Angina

27

Episodic, Gets worse, lasts longer

Unstable Angina

28

ST elevation, at rest, in cycles
Female, age 50
Vasospasmic, give CaCB

Prinzmetal/Variant Angina

29

ST depression on ECG, normal angiogram
Treat with nifedipine

Syndrome X

30

Occurs when lying down

Decubitus Angina

31

Occurs when lying down

Decubitus Angina

32

Severe, intermittent attacks in lower chest
Coxsackie B virus, fevers
Worse by rib cage movements, dyspnoea

Borneholme Disease

33

Pleuritic chest pain, low-grade fever and
pericarditis, few weeks post-MI

Dressler’s Syndrome

34

RHF, pulmonary hypertension
Large A waves in JVP

Cor Pulmonale

35

Pulmonary hypertension, HF, shunt
reversal
Harsh pansystolic murmur at left sternal
edge
Left parasternal heave
Increased risk endocarditis

Ventricular Septal Defect

36

Wide, fixed split second heart sound
Ejection systolic murmur in 2nd/3rd IC
space

Atrial Septal Defect

37

Anterior (Lead and artery)

V1-V4
Left Anterior Descending

38

Inferior (lead and artery)

II, III & aVF
Right Coronary

39

Lateral

I, V5-6
Circumflex

40

Lateral

I, V5-6
Circumflex

41

Raised & fixed JVP

SVC Obstruction

42

Increased JVP on inspiration

cardiac tamponade/constrictive pericarditis

43

Large V waves (JVP)

tricuspid regurgitation

44

Absent A waves (JVP)

atrial fibrillation

45

Cannon A waves (JVP) (3)

Heart block, AV dissociation, ventricular arrhythmia

46

saw tooth pattern (ECG)

atrial flutter

47

ECG: Absent P wave

atrial fibrillation (also irregularly irregular rhythm)

48

ECG: bifid P wave

LA hypertrophy (eg- mitral stenosis)

49

ECG: Peaked P wave

RA hypertrophy (eg- pulmonary HTN, tricuspid stenosis)

50

ECG: Saddle Shaped ST elevation

Acute constrictive pericarditis

51

PE ECG

Sinus tachy
Atrial fib
RAD and RBBB
SI, QIII, TIII

52

ECG: SI, QIII, TIII

PE

53

ECG: Tall tented T waves
Wide QRS (sine wave)

Hyperkalaemia

54

ECG: Flattened T waves
Prominent U waves

Hypokalaemia

55

Long QT interval

Hypocalcaemia

56

Long QT interval

Hypocalcaemia

57

SOB on exertion
“Winter bronchitis”
Wheeze
Chronic productive cough
Inv: post-bronchodilator Spirometry

COPD

58

Inv: post-bronchodilator Spirometry

COPD

59

Fever
Chronic Cough
Weight loss
Asian
Lowenstein Jensen Medium
Red Ziehl-Nelson Stain
“Acid fast bacilli”
RIPE treatment

TB

60

Lowenstein Jensen Medium

TB

61

Red Ziehl-Nelson Stain

TB

62

“Acid fast bacilli”

TB

63

SE: orange tears

Rifampicin

64

SE: peripheral neuropathy

Isoniazid

65

SE: Red-green colour blind

Ethambutol

66

Steatorrhoea, diabetes
Clubbing, Signet rings
Recurrent Infections
Bronchiectasis
Sodium >60mmol

Cystic Fibrosis

67

Shipyard/power station worker
End-inspiratory crackles
Non-productive cough
Pleural effusion

Mesothelioma

68

Mouldy hay

Farmer's lung (EAA)

69

Parakeets/Pigeons

Bird fanciers lung (EAA)

70

MI
Brady cardia

Inferior MI

71

Syncope, angina, dyspnoea

SAD triad of aortic stenosis