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Flashcards in C Deck (37)
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Any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement system and, when sources of error are found, to use that information to correct or improve the measured system.



The change (acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time; based on count per unit of time celerating or decelerating (multiplying or dividing); displayed with a trend line on a Standard Celeration Chart. Celeration is a generic term without specific reference to accelerating or decelerating rates of response.


Celeration Time Period

A unit of time in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart.


Celeration Trend Line

The celeration trend line is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods.


Chained Schedule

As schedule or reinforcement in which the response requirements of two or more basic schedules must be met in a specific sequence before reinforcement is delivered; a discriminative stimulus is correlated with each component of the schedule.



Various procedures for teaching behavior chains.


Changing Criterion Design

An experimental design in which an initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment. Experimental control is evidenced by the extent the level of responding changes to each new criterion.


Clicker Training

A term popularized by Pryor (1999) for shaping behavior using conditioned reinforcement in the form of an auditory stimulus. A handheld device produces a click sound when pressed. The trainer pairs other reinforcers with the click sound so that the sound becomes a conditioned reinforcer.


Component Analysis

Any experiment designed to identify the active elements of a treatment condition, the relative contributions of different variables in a treatment package, and/or the necessary and sufficient components of an intervention. Component Analysis take many forms, but the basic strategy is t compare levels of responding across successive phases in which the intervention is implemented with one or more components left out.


Compound Schedule

A schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more elements of continuous reinforcement (CRF), the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, VI), differential reinforcement of various rates of responding (DRH, DRL) and extinction. The elements from this basic schedule can occur successively or simultaneously and with or without discriminative stimuli; reinforcement may be contingent on meeting the requirements of each element of the schedule independently or in combination with all elements.


Concept Formation

A complex example of stimulus control that requires stimulus generalization within a class of stimuli and discrimination between classes of stimuli.


Concurrent Schedule (conc)

A schedule of reinforcement in which two or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors.


Conditional Probability

The likelihood that a target behavior will occur in a given circumstance; computed by calculating (a) the proportion of occurrences of behavior that were preceded by a specific antecedent variable and (b) the proportion of occurrences of problem behavior that were followed by a specific consequence. Conditional probabilities range from 0.0 to 1.0; the closest the conditional probability is to 1.0 the closer the conditional probability is to 1.0 the stronger the relationship is between the target behavior and the antecedent/consequence variable.


Conditioned Motivating Operation (CMO)

A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history. For example, because of the relation between locked doors and keys more effective as reinforcers, and evokes behavior that has obtained such keys.


Conditioned Negative Reinforcer

A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a negative reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more negative reinforcers.


Conditioned Punisher

A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers; sometimes called secondary or learned punisher.


Conditioned Reflex

A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicit's.


Conditioned Reinforcer

A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers; sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcer.


Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; a formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) or other CS.



Describes a situation of trust insofar as any information regarding a person receiving or having received services may not be discussed with or otherwise made available to another person or group, unless that person has provided explicit authorization for release of such information.


Conflict of Interest

A situation in which a person in a position of responsibility or trust has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially.


Confounding Variable

An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable.



A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest. Some consequences, especially those that are immediate and relevant to current motivational states have significant influence on future behavior; others have little effect.



Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.


Contingency Contract

A mutually agreed upon document between parties that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of specified behaviors and access to specified reinforcers.


Contingency Reversal

Exchanging the reinforcement contingencies for tow topographically different responses.



Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.


Contingent Observation

A procedure for implementing time-out in which the person is re-positioned within an existing setting such that observations of ongoing activities remains, but access to the reinforcement is lost.


Continuous Measurement

Measurement conducted in a manner such that all instances of the response classes of interest are detected during the observation period.


Continuous Reinforcement (CRF)

A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each occurrence of the target behavior.