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A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior; can be faded in or out


Feature stimulus class

Stimuli that share common physical forms or structures or common relative relationships


Fixed Interval (FI)

A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced


Fixed Interval DRO (FI-DRO)

A DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at the end of intervals of fixed duration and delivered contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during each interval.


Fixed-momentary DRO (FM-DRO)

A DRO procedure in which reinforcement is available at specific moments of time, which are separated by a fixed amount of time, and delivered contingent on the problem behavior not occurring at those moments


Fixed Ratio (FR)

A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement


Fixed-time schedule (FT)

A schedule of reinforcement for the delivery of noncontingent stimuli in which a time interval remains the same from one delivery to the next


Formal Similarity

A situation that occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode and (b) physically resembled each other. The verbal relations with formal similarity are echoic, copying text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.


Forward Chaining

A method for teaching behavior chains that begins with the learner being prompted and taught to perform the first behavior in the task analysis; the trainer completes the remaining steps in the chain. When the learner shows competence in performing the first step in the chain, he is then taught to perform the first two behaviors in the chain, with the training completing the chain. This process is continued until the learner completes the entire chain independently.


Free Operant

Any operant behavior that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space. Examples include: the number of words read during a 1 min counting period, number of hand slaps per 6 seconds, and number of letter strokes written in 3 min


Free-operant Avoidance

A contingency in which responses at any time during an interval prior to the scheduled onset of an aversive stimulus delays the presentation of the aversive stimulus.



A ratio of count per observation time; often expressed as count per standard unit of time and calculated by dividing the number of responses recorded by the number of standard units of time in which observations were conducted


Full-session DRL

A procedure for implementing DRL in which reinforcement is delivered at the end of the session if the total number of responses emitted during the session does not exceed the criterion limit


Function-altering effect

A relatively permanent change in an organism's repertoire of MO, stimulus, and response relations, caused by reinforcement, punishment, and extinction procedure.


Function-based definition

Designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely in terms of their common effect on the environment


Functional Analysis

An analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem-behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured; typically consists of four conditions: three test conditions (attention, escape, alone) and a control condition in which behavior is expected to be low because reinforcement is freely available and no demands are placed on the person


Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

A systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person


Functional Communication Training (FCT)

An antecedent intervention in which an appropriate communicative behavior is taught as a replacement behavior from problem behavior usually evoked by an establishing operation (EO); involves DR or DRA


Functional Relation

A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event can be produced by manipulating another event and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors


Functionally equivalent

Serving the same function or purpose; different topographies of behavior are functionally equivalent if they produce the same consequences