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Flashcards in C1d Deck (13):

What is addition polymerisation?

-lots of alkenes opened up at the double bond and joined together to form polymer chains


What are polymers?

-formed when lots of monomers join together


What are the conditions needed for addition polymerisation?

-high pressure


What do weak forces mean about a plastic?

-chains are free to slide over each other
-plastic can be stretched easily and has a low melting point


What do strong forces mean about a plastic?

-stronger bonds, possibly covalent bonds between chains
-or cross-linking bridges
-high melting point
-plastics are rigid and can't be stretched as the crosslinks hold the chains firmly together


What are some types of polymers?

-strong, rigid (e.g.high density polyethene) used to make plastic milk bottles
-light, stretchable (e.g.low density polyethene) used for shopping bags and squeezy bottles.Low melting point, so no good to carry very hot things
-PVC is strong and durable, can be made either rigid or stretchy. Rigid used for window frames and piping, stretchy used to make synthetic leather
-polystyrene foam used in packaging to protect breakable things, disposable coffee cups (thermal insulator, trapped air)


How is gore-tex made?

-laminating a thin film of expanded PTFE onto a layer of another fabric, e.g. nylon or polyester. Making PTFE sturdier


What are the advantages of gore-tex?

-PTFE film has tiny holes which let water vapour through, so it is breathable
-holes not big enough to let water droplets through and PTFE repels liquid water, so waterproof
-great for outdoorsy types


What are the disadvantages of nylon?

-polyurethane coating doesn't let water vapour pass through so sweat condenses -material is not breathable


Why is nylon used for clothing and how?

-nylon is a synthetic polymer
-not waterproof on its own
-coat in polyurethane to make waterproof, tough and hard-wearing, and keep UV light out


Why do non-biodegradable plastics cause disposal problems?

-landfill sites full up quickly and the plastics will still be there years later, a waste of land and plastic
-burnt plastic releases acidic sulfur dioxide and poisonous hydrogen chloride, waste of plastic


What are chemists doing about non-biodegradable plastics?

-working on a variety of ideas to produce polymers that are biodegradable or dissolve


How to stop wasting plastics?

-reuse them
-recycle. however sorting lots of different plastics for recycling is difficult and expensive