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Flashcards in Canada Government (Chapter 9 & 10) Deck (128):

In order of most left wing to most right wing, list the ideologies.

Communism, socialism, liberalism (classical liberalism, reform liberalism), conservatism, fascism


Major thinkers, founders and books of classical liberalism

-Adam Smith
­­The Wealth of Nations


Major thinkers, founders and books of reform liberalism

-John Maynard Keynes


Major thinkers, founders and books of conservatism

-British statesman Edmund Burke


Major thinkers, founders and books of socialism (4)

-Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-Henri de Saint-Simon
-Robert Owen


Major thinkers, founders and books of communism (4)

-Karl Marx
-Friedrich Engel
-Marx and Engel believed that communism would result in the disappearance of government (but this is not the case; communist countries still have a government)
-­Communist Manifest


Major thinkers, founders and books of fascism (3)

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini
General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte of Chile seen as an example of modern fascism


Classical liberalism - view of human nature (2)

-people are good; capable of improving through effort
-social, economic, political conditions improve each generation


Reform liberalism - view of human nature

-social, economic, political conditions improve each generation


Conservatism - view of human nature (2)

-Humans should have some guidance
-Humans must be protected from moral issues/influences


Socialism - view of human nature

-humans are “basically” good


Communism - view of human nature (3)

-people are selfish
-humans are always in conflict
-humans take advantage of each other (oppressors vs the oppressed)


Fascism - view of human nature (5)

-believed that a mythical past age could be reborn into the present
-citizens would be “pure”
-families lead by father figure
-everyone in a strict place in society
-people are weak and they need to be controlled


Classical liberalism - political beliefs (3)

-economic freedom
-intellectual freedom
-not concerned with economic or intellectual equality


Reform liberalism - political beliefs (5)

-stronger commitment to economic equality
-intellectual freedom
-governmental intervention when necessary
-reformed liberalism believed that government should be more involved with the economy
-spending necessary to ensure citizens have the basics


Conservatism - political beliefs (4)

-intellectual equality (favours censorship)
-strong supporters of economic freedom; only moderate supporters of intellectual freedom
- monarchs should have power of the elected people in the parliament
-gradual progression is okay, but against radicalism


Socialism - political beliefs (4)

-economic equality (similar to communism, but socialism believe in achieving this peacefully, whilst communism believe in using violent means.)
-intellectual freedom
-believed government gave people true freedom
-community should own large companies


Communism - political beliefs (6)

-economic equality (marxist)
-abolish private property (through violent means)
-intellectual equality
-will censor stuff
-"true communism" would result in disappearance of government
-modern communist countries still have a government that intrude on people's economic and intellectual life.


Fascism - political beliefs (9)

-intellectual equality
-economic equality
-country controls everything
-every action towards the good of the country
-private ownership is available only under strict regulations
-no intellectual freedom
-individual freedom was allowed if the citizen contributed something good to the country
-focused on military


Communism (definition) (2)

1. One of the five ideologies; far left; state control of enterprise through the dictatorship of the workers.
2. A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
3. Socialism through the dictatorship of the working class


Socialism (definition) (2)

1. One of the five ideologies; left wing; government controls the production
2. A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.


Liberalism (definition) (2)

1. One of the five ideologies; moderate; favoring representative government and protection of civil rights and private property
2. A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.


Conservatism (definition) (2)

1. One of the five ideologies; right wing; devoted to keep things as they are
2. A political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.


Fascism (definition) (2)

1. One of the five ideologies; far right; government by a dictator, suppressing all criticism and favoring aggressive nationalism
2. A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.


Democracy (2)

1. Government by the people
2. A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives


Representative democracy (2)

1. Democracy where citizens elect representatives according to the population to make decisions regarding laws for all people.
2. A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.


Constitutional monarchy

1. Monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are limited by a constitution; power usually lies under the prime minister


Federal system (2)

1. An organization of regional governments (provinces), each acting on behalf of its own residents, with a central government in Ottawa responsible for matters vital to the nation as a whole.
2. A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments


Three levels of government

federal, provincial and municipal


Residual powers (2)

1. Leftover powers; powers not mentioned in the Constitution; federal government is responsible for them
2. In Canada's Constitution any powers that are not specifically listed are held by the federal government or the Crown.


Three Components of Parliament

House of Commons, Senate, Queen (Prime Minister)


Constituency (2)

1. An area of approximately 100,000 people to be represented by one elected government official (MP).
2. A district/group of people which are represented by a Member of Parliament in the House of Commons.


Governor General (2)

1. The representative of the British Monarch in Canada
2. Head of the Canadian Government. Reports to the British monarch.


Prime Minister

The leader of the governing party


Member of Parliament (MP)

A person elected to the House of Commons. There are 338 Members of Parliament, representing all of the areas of Canada in the House of Commons



An area (approximately 100,000 people) marked by population to be represented by an elected government official (same as constituency)



A private meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.


Legislation (2)

1. Law that has been signed into the Constitution; laws or a set of laws made by a government
2. a law or set of laws; the act of making or enacting laws


Orders-in-Council (2)

1. When the Prime Minister goes straight to the Governor General to enforce emergency laws (ie. during war.)
2. Laws/regulations without parliamentary vote, signed by G.G., advised by PM/Cabinet



A proposed legislation that hasn't been signed into law yet


Speaker of the House

A member of the House who is elected by all the MPs to oversee the discussions in the House



Intended to represent the official's authority. Was used has a weapon



A group of advisors to the prime minister; each cabinet member is responsible for a specific area


Shadow Cabinet

A group of advisors to the official opposition; each shadow cabinet member is responsible for a specific area


Backbencher (2)

1. MPs who are either the first time elected to the House or have different standings in politics as the prime minister; usually sit in the back of the House
2. Those members of Parliament who are not ministers. They sit at the back of the chamber.



Official report of what was said during a session in the House of Commons. Everything said is written down.


Vote of non-confidence (2)

1. A vote that a person in higher power is no longer deemed fit for that position
2. Occurs when a proposed bill receives less than a majority of votes in the House of Commons, defeating the government and forcing it to resign


Majority Government

When the governing party has more than half of the total amount of seats


Minority Government

When the governing party has less than half the total amount of seats



A component of Parliament consisting of 105 members appointed by the governor general on request of the prime minister.


Cabinet solidarity

A custom that cabinet members must not show public disagreement with government policies


Party whip

One member elected by parties. They are responsible for ensuring that all members are present in Parliament to vote. They may discipline members who do not behave.


Lieutenant Governor

Executive officer appointed by the governor general on recommendation by the premier. Each province/territory has one.



The head of a provincial/territorial government


Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA)

Persons elected to the Legislative Assembly (provincial government)



The head of a city government



Elected members of a local government council



Laws that only apply in a particular municipality; the municipal government enforces these. There is a punishment (usually a fine) if a by-law enforcement officer catches you breaking these small laws


Pressure group

Interest groups made up of people who share a certain viewpoint and want to change or influence government policy in order to promote their common interest


Lobbyist (2)

1. A person (a retired politician for example) who is paid (usually by a pressure group) to attempt to influence decisions made by officials in government
2. A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.


Civil Disobedience

The act of intentionally breaking, or refusing to keep, laws one considers unjust


Proroguing Parliament

When the Governor General ends a Parliament session on request of the Prime Minister, usually after all objectives proposed by the PM have been met; Parliament remains prorogued until the PM summons Parliamentarians for a new session.


Dissolving Parliament

When the Prime Minister asks the Governor General to call an election; the parliament is dissolved


Election campaigns

Efforts by candidates and their supporters to win support from donors, activists, and voters in quest for political office


Public opinions polls

A cross-section of the population that is believed to accurately represent the views of all Canadians are contacted and surveyed about voting preference, opinions on political leaders, parties, and issues. These answers are then tabulated and given to campaigners to help them strategize their campaigns.


First-past-the post-system

The candidate with the most votes in each riding wins the election; there is a representative for each riding; simple and straightforward; minority government do not often occur


Proportional representation

The amount of seats in the House is determined by the percentage of the popular vote the party receives; takes more time; more democratic


Political parties

Political parties are organizations of individuals who support a common set of goals and beliefs; they act as a way of representing the views of Canadians in the decision-making process



A common set of beliefs among members of a political party; provides a framework for the party's decisions and policies


Left wing

Support change in order to improve the welfare of all citizens; governments should pay a larger role in people's lives, especially in providing social services; law and order are important to protect the rights of all citizens fairly and equally


Right wing

Tradition is important; change should be treated with caution; governments should play a small role; private businesses should ensure needs of citizens are met; emphasizes law and order to protect society and its traditions


Non -governmental organization (NGO)

Non-profit organizations that work to improve some aspect of people's lives; many work internationally, providing services and lobbying governments to change unfair laws or policies


Mass media

Include television, radio, newspapers, and magazines; chief methods of communicating ideas and information in our society


Liberal (2)

1. open minded, unprejudiced, and favours democratic change
2. favours democratic reform, open minded


Conservative (2)

1. prefers to keep things the way they are; careful or reluctant to change
2. disposed to maintaining existing institutions



avoids political extremes; one who is temperate in conduct and expression


Radical (2)

1. an extremist in favour of forward or progressive change; to move ahead at all cost; a revolutionary (FAR LEFT)
2. extreme left wing, always advocates change


Reactionary (2)

1. ultraconservative; an extremist favouring change back to the old line or system (FAR RIGHT)
2. an extremist favouring change back to the old system



no government; chaos



ruling or directing the affairs of state; body of persons that governs



a body of people occupying a defined territory and organized under a sovereign (government)


Dictatorship (2)

1. a single person controls the government
2. being controlled by a single person



a small group controls the government



dictatorship by a monarch



free enterprise--minimum amount of state regulation or control; Adam Smith


Democratic Socialism

state control through democratic elections


What are the 3 branches of government?

Judicial, legislative and executive


Judicial Branch (3)

Decides who has broken the law and how to set penalties
Intreprets and applies laws
Governments do not hold this power directly; judges and courts at the federal and provincial levels hold the power


Executive Branch (What is it responsible for, and who is apart of it?) (3)

Administer and carry out laws
Enforce laws
Are the police/PM/Cabinet for example
Things they do:
Set national budget (federal)
Establish high school diploma requirements (provincial)
Inspect businesses and restaurants (municipal)


Legislative Branch (What is it responsible for, and who is apart of it?) (2)

Make and amend laws
Are the parliament
Things they do:
Set employment insurance payment levels (federal)
Set taxation rate for education (provincial)
Make waste disposal by-laws (municipal)


What is the federal government responsible for? (6)

National defence for air, land and sea
Postal service
Printing money/Financial institutions
Legal system


What is the provincial government responsible for? (8)

Health care
Legal system
Public transportation
Child welfare


What is the municipal government responsible for? (10)

Fire fighting
Sewers and roads
Public transportation
Snow removal
Garbage removal


What is the prime minister responsible for? (11)

-asking the GG to name new judges/senators
-deciding when it is appropriate to ask the GG to call elections
-addressing Canadians on issues of national concern
-explaining the goals of the ruling party
-representing Canada on trips to other nations
-speaking on behalf of all Canadians at international meetings
-working with provincial premiers to coordinate and share responsibilities
-acting as a spokesperson for his/her party
-giving out patronage appointments, rewarding loyal supporters with positions in the Senate, diplomatic corps, or government-operated businesses
-lead other party members in Parliament
-"appointing" the governor general (gives advice to the queen)


What are the members of Parliament responsible for? (5)

-representing 100,000 Canadian citizens (each)
-voting in favour of their party's position in te HOC
-debating proposed legislation
-discuss proposed legislation
-scrutinize the actions of the government (if they are the opposition)


What is the cabinet responsible for? (4)

-responsible for their department's operation and finances
-responsible for their actions and the actions of their department's staff
-speaking on behalf of their department in Parliament and in public
-displaying full support for their leader and the decisions of the government when in public (they may speak frankly in private cabinet meetings)


What is the senate responsible for? (5)

-provide a final check on the legislation passed in the HOC
-introduce bills, debate them, and send them to the HOC (rare)
-undertake investigations into issues that the HOC cannot/will not get involved with
-work on committees and task forces
-perform diplomatic services for the government


What is the governor general responsible for? (4)

-give formal assent to a bill before it becomes law (royal assent)
-represent the Queen/ceremonial functions
-act as an advisor to the government to ensure it abides by the Constitution
-using up taxpayer money


What are the pros/cons of the senate? (3+ 2-)

+ensures that bills are thorougly checked before being passed
+ensures that bills assess the needs of all regions
+deals with sensitive topics so that the HOC does not need to
-positions are controversially handed out as a form of patronage by the PM


What are the arguments in support of abolishing the senate? (4)

-expensive to maintain
-undemocratic (people don't have a say in the senators)
-PMs abusing their right to appoint senators (patronage)


What are the arguments in support of reforming the senate? (6)

-offers 'sober second thought'
-regions bring up their concerns
-three e's will address most concerns with the senate (effective, equal, elected)
-effective: regulations to prevent senators from abusing taxpayer money for personal things
-equal: same amount of people from each region
-elected: more democratic


What are the arguments in support of maintaining the senate? (2)

-it is not the system that is broken, it is the people; appoint better people.
-senators can speak openly becuase they don't have to worry about losing their seat/not being re-elected


What is the procedure for passing a statute? What is a statue? (11)

1. Bill is proposed
2. Bill is drafted - cabinets approves it
3. First reading of the bill - the bill is presented to the HOC; no discussion yet
4. Second reading of the bill - debate/discussion in principle; if not approved, the bill must be improved before being presented again
5. Bill is debated by a committee made up of MPs, including some members of the Opposition
6. Report stage - committee chairperson reports on the results of the committee's investigations to the HOC
7. Third reading of the bill in the HOC - HOC votes to accept/reject the bill; they can propose ammedments
8. The bill goes to the Senate - the Senate hears three readings of the bill; they vote whether to accept/reject
9. The bill is presented to the GG/lieutenant-governor - they give royal assent
10. The bill becomes a statute.
A statute is a law.


List possible ways to make your opinion and voices heard. (7)

1. Joining a political party
2. Joining a NGO
3. Pressure groups/lobbyists
4. Letters to the editor/phone-in shows
5. Civil disobedience
6. Mass media
7. Contacting the MP/MLA/alderperson


Briefly describe/explain "joining a political party" (5)

a. Must be 18 years of age to join a political party
b. Must be a Canadian citizen
c. Most parties have a youth wing that allows young people to have their say
regarding policies and future directions for the party
d. People join political parties to improve the quality of life in their community,
region, or nation
e. Others believe strongly in the ideology of the political party and act on their


Briefly describe/explain "joining a NGO" (4)

a. Special interest group; non­profit organizations that work to improve some aspect of people’s lives
b. Some work internationally
c. Lobby governments to change unfair laws
d. Examples of some NGOs are the United Way, the Canadian Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, Oxfam, and the Western Canada Wilderness Committee


Briefly describe/explain "pressure groups/lobbyists" (14)
(Give an example of a successful pressure group, what are the arguments against pressure groups?)

a. Interest groups; made up of people with the same viewpoint who want to change government policy and promote their viewpoint
b. Two types: Institutionalized and Issue­oriented
i. Institutionalized pressure groups are well­established and have formal organizations.
ii. Issue ­oriented pressure groups are less permanent; they form the group to accomplish a certain goal and disband once that goal has been accomplished. They often use lobbyists.
c. They provide research, polls, reports, and advice to government ministries.
d. Lobbyists are people who are paid to represent the interests of a particular group
to key decision makers (ie. politicians, high­level bureaucrats,etc.)
e. Free the Children is a successful pressure group.
i. Raise awareness of children’s rights and child labour
ii. Encourage young people to exercise their rights and become politically
f. The danger with lobbying is that people with special influence can persuade governments to put in place policies that favour their group but are not necessarily in the public interest
g. Some pressure groups also use courts to get their points through
h. Although some groups are large enough to be self­financing, most public interest groups are often dependent on funds from government; while receiving government funds can help give a group a voice in policy making, it can also limit the effectiveness of the group
i. Some critics argue that if pressure groups are too successful, then democracy is put at risk
i. They argue that if government is influenced too greatly by well­organized active minority interest groups, then the wishes of the majority may not be heard­ ­or even sought


Briefly describe/explain "letters to the editor/radio phone-in shows" (2)

a. Express views and concerns
b. Not very efficient; time consuming and expensive


Briefly describe/explain "civil disobedience" (2)

a. Civil disobedience is the act of intentionally breaking, or refusing to keep, laws one considers unjust/Rioting
b. Ex. Clayoquot Sound­­blocking logging roads


Briefly describe/explain "mass media"

Mass media are free to criticize government actions, or to question the decisions made by elected representatives and officials; the medial also report on public opinion polls


Briefly describe/explain "contacting the MP/MLA/alderperson" (3)

a. Will voice your opinion in government
b. Request information, assistance, or intervention
c. Not very efficient; time consuming and expensive


What are the steps in an election? (6)

1. Dissolution
2. Enumeration
3. Nomination
4. Campaigning
5. Voting
6. Tabulation



Prime Minister asks Governor General to dissolve parliament



Counts amount of voters; compiles the voter's list



Selection of representatives from each party for each constituency/riding


Campaigning (2)

-Nominees/parties try to gain the most amount of votes through campaigning
(TV, knocking, etc.)
-There is a set number of days for campaigning (minimum 36 days)



Voters cast their votes; marking a ballet with your vote.



The counting of the amount of votes for each party.


What are some reasons that people choose not to vote? (4)

1. don’t care
2. don’t agree with any party’s viewpoint
3. don’t care about the issue
4. not on the list


List the pros/cons of first past the post (4)

● The winner does not necessarily have to win a majority of the votes cast; he or she
simply has to win more votes than any of the other candidates
● This system has the virtue of being simple and straightforward
● There is usually a clear winner of elections and that minority governments do not happen as often as in proportional representation
● However, the result does not always represent the wishes of the majority of voters


List pros/cons of proportional representation (7)

● PR system are used in countries such as Israel, Holland, and Italy
● More democratic
● Takes longer
● The number of seats a party wins in the House of Commons is based on the total number of votes it receives (percentage of votes = percentage of seats)
● One objection is that this kind of PR system would mean that local representation would disappear, or change
● Since most elections using PR do not give one party a majority, parties often have to create coalitions, or alliances to form a government
● May increase the number of elections and diminishes the stability of the government


How many constituencies are there in BC? Who are they represented by in the provincial government?

There are 85 constituencies; they are represented by Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs).


How many people does each MLAs represent?

They represent 50,000 people each


Where is the Legislative Assembly (Legislature) located?

It is located in Victoria.


What is the difference between a law and a by-law?

A by-law only applies to a certain municpal; by-law enforcement officers are responsible for making sure that people are not breaking these by-laws.
Laws, on the other hand, are either created on the provincial level (where they apply to the province) or the federal level (where they apply to the whole country); the judiciary branch of government interpret these laws.


What are some reasons why an election may be held? (4)

-Government Manate expired (5 years, according to constitution)
-Governing party has high popularity and the PM called an election to take advantage
-To decide a major issue
-A vote of non-confidence


What is a Constitution?
(A. What is it? B. What does it reflect? C. What does it look like?)

A. It defines the political structure of the country and sets up two levels of government: federal and provincial (municipal is a third level, but it falls under the authority of the provincial government). It then defines which level of government may make laws regarding certain issues. It also outlines the relationship between government and the poeple by making those who govern equal to those who are governed.
B. It is a reflection of the most important features/values of the political system
(rule of law, constituional monarchy, representative democracy, parliamentary government, federalism)
C. It is part written in documents and part unwritten conventions (which still have the force of law)
The BNA Act was a central document for how the country operated; it addressed the three branches of government and the division of powers bewteen the federal/provincial government.
The more current Canada Act includes the old BNA Act and a new document called the Constitutional Act 1982 which includes: The Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Aboriginal Rights: "recognized and affirmed", Amending Procedure (7/10 and 50% of the country's population must agree to any changes.)


What are the requirements to become a senator?

1. Canadian citizen
2. at least 30 years of age (and less than 75)
3. own at least $4000 worth of property