Flashcards in Ch 7 Deck (128):
● Person forced to leave their homes because of war, persecution or natural disaster.
● A refugee
● Housing in the outlying areas of cities
● Increase in birth rate post WW2-1960
● Capitalist society where individuals are encouraged to spend money on new products and services to benefit the economy
● Large-scale construction projects that require huge capital investment
● Process of referring political decision to the people for a direct vote
● Payments made by federal gov to some provinces so the standard of living will become more equal in Canada
● An aboriginal registered with federal gov. according to the terms of the Indian Act
● Saskatchewan premier who introduced complete Medicare program
● Program that allowed all people in all provinces to seek medical treatment without paying directly from their own pocket
● Country that Pierre Trudeau wanted to build
● Government would have duty to protect rights and freedoms of people, foster their social and economical well-being.
● Government should not interfere with personal liberties
● Belief that women should have equality with man in political, social, economical fields.
● They should not be discriminated against on basis of their sex
● Group of individuals with common interests and concerns who attempt to pressure political decision makers
● Differences in income, wages, jobs in one area compared to another.
● Feeling on part of western Canada that federal policies favour central Canada
● Difference between expenditures (money spent) and revenue that happens when a government spends more than it takes in
● Something, typically money, that is owed or due.
● A period in human history characterized by the shift from the industry of the Industrial Revolution to an economy based on Information Computerization
What happened in 1945?
● War veterans return to Canada
What happened in 1947?
● Immigarion of displaced persons from Europe begins
● Oil is discovvered at Leduc, Alberta
What happened in 1949?
● Newfoundland becomes Canada's tenth province
What happened in 1952?
● First CBC TV broadcast is made
What happened in 1966?
● Medical Care Act is passed
What happened in 1968?
● CRTC created to regulate foreign content on radio and television
What happened in 1970?
● Trans-Canada Highway is completed
What happened in 1971?
● National Action Committee on the Status of Women is established
When did the Canadian government wrestle with national debt and deficit?
When did internet become generally accessible?
What happened in 1999?
● Saskatchewan nurses go on strike, protesting government helath care cutbacks
What happened in 2000?
● Federal government debt is about $576 billion
Who did the veterans bring back to Canada?
● One in five Canadian bachelors serving overseas married there
● Approximately 48000 war brides and their children arrived in 1945 and 1946
What conditions were veterans in after they returned to Canada?
● Canadian government passed special legislation
● Veterans who wanted their old jobs back were giventhem, and the years that they had been away at war were counted as years of service on the job
● Veterans and war widow werer gien hiring preference for government jobs
● Those who wished to atten university or trade school received free truition and living allowances
● The Veterans' Land Act was passed, enabling veterans to obtain mortgages at preferential rates
What are displaced persons?
● Name given to refugees languishing in camps across Europe after WWII by the UN
● They included concentration camp survivors and others uprooted by the war
● These people had no homes, possenssions or hope for the future
Where did most immigrants settle in Canada after WWII?
The newcomers now settled mostly in the cities of central Canada
What happened as a result of the expansion in Canada's population?
● There was a tremendous demand for housing in the years after the war
● Developers began building thousands of new homes
● The outlying areas of cities, the suburbs, were becoming populated
What are bedroom communities?
● Commuters returned to these at the end of the working day
● They had their own schools, parks, and places of worship
What values did the suburbs bring in?
● Centred on the traditional family, with the stay-at-home mother at its heart
- Popular women's magazines denounced working mothers as the cause of delinquent children
- Fashions emphasized traditional feminity
● The father's role was to be the breadwinner, supporting the family on his paycheck
What and when was the baby boom?
● Increase in the birth rate
● Post-war period until 1960
What changes did the "boomer" generation bring to Canada initially?
● Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, and junior hockey fourished
● Schools had to be built at an unprecedented rate
● Manufacturers began to make a whole range of new products for the baby boomers
How did automobile changed Canada?
● Corner grocery stores shut down as large new supermrkets appeared
● The shopping mall became the hub of suburban life
- Replaced the front porch, village green, and the corner store as a gathering place
- The opening of a mall was a community event
What did the automobile represent in the post-war era?
Fascination with techonology, progress, security and personal freedom
What negative impacts did automobiles cause?
● Gas comsumption
● Atmospheric pollution
● Safety--car accidents were becoming a leading cause of death
- Seat belts were non-existent
- Drinking and driving was common
What fostered the consumer society and how?
● It encouraged people to buy more products--advertisements
What was teenagers' fashions after WWII?
● Girls wore their hair in poodle cuts, pony tails, or beehives
- They dressed in saddled shoes or penny loafers, poodle skirts, cirnolines, and cardigans
- They wore strapless gowns to their proms
● Boys had crew-cut or ducktail hairstyles and dressed in white socks, blue jeans, or dress pants, and V-necked sweaters, black leather jackets, or sports coats
What musical style became popular among the teenagers?
Rock 'n' roll
What was rock 'n' roll?
● Strong thythms and sometimes rebellious teen-centred lyrics
● Elvis Presley
How were Canadians conservative after WWII?
● No newspapers were published on Sundays, nor could people go to the movies
● Movies and books were strictly censored
● Many towns prohited the sale of liquor
● Women were discouraged from going to taverns alone
What happened after Maurice "Rocket" Richard, a hockey player, got suspended?
● A riot erupted at the Montreal Forum in 1955
● Bottles and rotten eggs were thrown at the NHL president
● Store windows and telephone booths were destroyed
● 37 people were injured
Who was Barbara Ann Scott?
A famous skater who won the world figure skating championship in 1947 and the Olympic gold medal in 1948
Who was Marilyn Bell?
● She was the first person to swim across Lake Ontario
● She was the youngest person to conquer the English Channel
● She swam the Strait of Juan de Fuca in 1957
What was the Massey Commission investigating about?
The Massey Commission was established in 1949 to investigate the state of Canadian culture
What did the Massey Commission suggest in 1951?
● Canadian culture needed to be protected from US influence
● Recommended that the National Film Board be strengthened
● Recommended that the federal government become invovled in funding universities and the arts
● Recommended that TV in Canada be used for national communication and cultural education in drama and music
What was the Canada Council?
● Award tax-funded grants to writers, artists, and theatres
● Established in 1957
Why was the Massey Commission worried about television?
● In the US, television was designed for entertainment
- It was a commercial enterprise, operated to create profit for station owners and advertisers
What was in charge of the development of television?
What was the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)?
An agency that would regulate the amount of foreign material broadcast over the airwaves and impose rules requiring Canadian content
What did King recommend for the transition to a peacetime economy?
● During the war, the provinces had transferred their powers to manage the ecnomy to the federal government
- He recommended that this change become permanent
● This would allow Ottawa to increase or decrease government spending to help solve problems such as unemployment and inflation
What did CD Howe recommend for the transition to a peacetime economy?
● Private industry would handle the transition to a peacetime economy, with the help of government incentives
● Generous tax breaks would be given to companies that agreed to produce consumer goods or invest in new plants
● Government Crown corporations were auctioned off to private companies, often at very low prices
How did Ottawa ensure that similar social services were available in all parts of the country?
● Proinces had to transfer taxation powers to the federal government
● In return, the provinces would receive grants to provide social services such as health care and education
● Through a system of "equalization" or "transfer" payments, the federal government would then transfer to the poorer provinces some of the taxes collected in the richer provinces
How did the nature of Confederation change after the equalization payments system was implemented?
The federal government gained power at the expense of the provinces, especially over social programs
What was the economic boom fostered by?
● New products, such as plastics and pesticides
● The development of natural resources such as metals and other minerals
● The discovery of oil in Alberta
Where and when was oil discovered in Canada?
Leduc, Alberta in 1947
What happened to the places where new mines and wells developed?
● Boom towns were carved out of the wilderness
● Airlifts brought in heavy equipment,construction material, and automobiles
● Tents, trailers, and temporary shanties were made to serve as offices and homes
Why did southern Ontario thrive?
● Southern Ontario thrived as a centre of manufacturing
- By the 1950s, more than half of the nation's factoris and plants and 99% of its automobile industry were located in Ontario
What did te thrive in manufacturing in Ontario lead to?
Ontario would be resented by the other provinces for its domination of industry
What need did the government recognize as towns across Canada grew?
The need to imporove the country's roads, sewer systems, power plants, schools, and hospitals
How did the projects benefit Canadian economy?
● These services were provided by the taxes from business and workers
● The money paid out to construction companies would create more jobs and stimulate the economy as workers spent their wages
What were some megaprojects after WWII?
● Trans-Canada Highway
● St. Lawrence Seaway
● Trans-Canada Pipeline
What was the significance of the St. Lawrence Seaway?
● It linked the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes and oepn the heart of the continent to large ocean-going ships
● It was a major feat of engineering developed by a joint Canada-US project
Where did the pipelines bring the natural gas to?
Industrial centres of central Canada
What were the advantages to US investment?
● Branch plants provided many Canadians with good jobs in manufacturing
● Canadian industries benefited from US technology
What were the disadvantages to US investment?
● The profits from the brnach plants went back to the parent corporations int he US
● It looked as though Canada was losing control of its economy
Who was HR MacMillan?
On the west coast, he put together one of the world's largest forestry companies
Who was KC Irving?
In New Brunswick, he became one of the world's richest men, with businesses ranging from gas stations to timber and newspapers
Who was EP Taylor and the Bronfman family?
In central Canada, they controlled the production of many consumer goods, and the stores that sold them
How did the trade unions fight for a greater share of the country's propserity?
● Strikers fought for the right to form unions and pressed for wages that would support a family
- Wages rose
● Workers won a major vicory in establishing the five-day, forth-hour work week, and increased fringe benefits such as paid vacations
What groups didn't shaare the prosperity of the times?
● The working poor
Why didn't women share the prosperity?
● Those who could not afford to be stay-at-home wives and mothers were at a particular disadvantage
● They were made to feel guilty by a society that condemned mothers who went out to work
● Women were legally discriminated against by their employers, who paid them less than men even if they did the same work
Why didn't First Nations shared the prosperity?
● They suffered the most from environmental damage caused by industries
- Mercury poisoning from a pulp and paper mill contaminated the fish caught and eaten at the White Dog Reserve at Grassy Narrow, Ontario
- The development of mines, highways, pipelines, and boom town disrupted the hunting grounds and way of life of other First Nations
What happened in Newfoundland during the Depression?
● The island had suffered so badly that its government had gone bankrupt
● Britain set up a special commission to govern it
What three options were given on the referendum in Newfoundland?
1. To continue under the existing government by commission
2. To return to the status of a self-governing dominion
3. To join Canada
Who was JR Joey Smallwood and what did he do?
JR "Joey" Smallwood was a skillful politician who argued that union with Canada would bring modernization and higher living standards to Newfoundland
What were Newfoundlanders' opinions?
● They belived the benefits could not make p for the higher taxes and loss of identity that Confederation would bring them
● Some would have preferred economic union with the US
Why were there two referendums regarding Newfoundland's political future?
● The first referendum in June 1948 didn't have a clear winner
- No option won a clear majority
● Another referendum was held in late July 1948
- The commission option was dropped
- 52% voted for Confederation
● On March 31, 2949, Newfoundland became part of Canada
What was Uncle Louis and why was it inaccurate?
● Uncle Louis was the nickname given to St. Laurent
- A reporter noticed that he seemed to like children on the campaign trail
● The media created the image of a kindly relative
● In reality, St. Laurent was an aloof man with a rich lifestyle
Who was the first westerner to become prime minister?
What did Diefenbaker see himself as?
● Prairies populist, one who spoke for and listened to ordinary people
● Committed to unhyphenated Canadianism
● Staunch nationalist--he believed in preserving Canada's British connections and standing up to the Americans
● Chartered human rights
What is unhyphenated Canadianism?
A belief in the equality of all Canadians, whatever their heritage
How did Diefenbaker champion human right?
● He was the first prime minister to include a woman in his Cabinet
● He was the first one to appoint an Aboriginal senator
● He gave Canada's status Indians living on reserves the right to vote in federal elections
● He introduced the Canadian Bill of Rights
Which group didn't appreciate Diefenbaker's version of "unhyphenated Canadianism"
Who did Pearson appeal to?
Younger and urban voters, esp. in central Canada
What was Pearson's version of Canada?
● Based on two founding peoples, French and English
● He believed that the British connection to Canada would be severed overtime
- Canada needed an identity that would be meaningful to all Canadians
What did Pearson implement?
● Trial abolition of capital punishment
● Easier divorce laws
● Introcued Canada's flag
● Improved Canada's social welfare system
What social welfares did Pearson's government introduce?
● Canada Pension Plan--improved on existing pension schemes
● Canada Assistance Plan--help the provinces finance social assisstance programs for all needy people
In which province was medical care first implemented?
What became the NDP and who was the leader?
In 1962, Tommy Douglas left provincial politics to become leader of the NDP, formed from the CCF
What did the Medical Care Act mean?
It meant that federal and provincial governments would now share the cost of medical care by doctors adn hospitals for all Canadians, with funding coming from taxes
Why was medicare a controversial social program?
● It is very costly, and some critics are dissatisfied with the government's role in the provision of health care
● However, canadians identifiy medicare as hte social program they value most in polls
Who developed a polio vaccine?
A US doctor, Jonas Salk in 1954
What was the Expo 67? Where was it hosted and when?
● An international fair that brought the world to Canada
● In Montreal
What was the "just society"?
● A vision of what Pierre Trudeau thought Canada should be
● Government had a duty to protect the rights and freedoms of people, and to foster their social and economic well-being
● Governments should not interfere with personal liberties
What was the "youthquake" and what caused it?
● The baby boom resulted in over half the population of NA being under the age of 25 by 1965
○ Adults were beginning to accept the new teen culture that arose as a result.
● From the mid-1960s, the huge population of young people in NA and western Europe created a powerful youth culture of protest- a youthquake.
What did politicians do to in an attempt to appeal to the young people during the youthquake?
● Spent more money to provide employment and activity for youth
● In 1972, the voting age for federal elections dropped from 21 to 18.
○ More provinces had already lowered theirs (for provincial elections.)
● Legal drinking age was lowered to 18
○ This was an attempt to decrease the appeal of illegal drugs.
What was the women's movement?
● Feminism emerged as a significant force during the social protests in the 1960s.
● Women felt isolated in the suburbs and trapped by roles that did not allow them to develop their potential
● In respnse to the pressure from feminists, the government set up the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in 1967, which concluded that:
○ Women should have the right to choose to work outside the home
○ Society in general, as well as parents, should take some responsbility for children; therefore, day care services should be provided.
○ Women should be entitled to paid maternity leave from their jobs
○ The federal government should do all it can to help overcome discrimination against women in society.
What was the environmental movement?
● In 1962, a US writer, Rachel Carson, published Silent Spring.
○ The book warned the public that terrible damage was being done to the Earth's air, water, and land.
● Organizations began to lobby the government to control industrial pollution.
● At first, businesses/governments resisted any attempts to limit pollution.
● Eventually, as the public concern rose dramatically, the federal governemnt and many provinces apssed laws that rquired companies to prove that their projects and plants would not harm their immediate environment.
● Recycling also became an issue
○ Automobile companies were pressured to make vehicles that were more fuel efficient and produced less pollution.
● Greenpeace was a popular environmental group.
What was Greenpeace?
● The most famous environmental group was Greenpeace.
● Created in 1970 by a small group of activists in BC.
● Concerned about the testing of a nuclear bomb off the coast of Alaska
○ In protest, they took a small boat to the test area and refused to leave until the test was cancelled.
● Used many dramatics tactics to draw attention to environmental issues.
● The organization has attracted a lot of support, but also a lot of criticism fro their tactics.
● Today, the organization is based in Amsterdam (USA).
Why did the OPEC impose an oil embargo?
● In 1973, war broke out in the Middle East between Israel and its Arab neighbours
- Many western countries, including Canada, supported Israel
● In retaliation, OPEC refused to sell oil to these countries
Why did the oil embargo lead to?
● Oil and gas prices jumped about 400%
● This huge increase in oil priceses started a round of inflation
What did many families choose to do in times of inflation?
● Two wage earners, dual-income families became common
- Women entered the workforce
● Their buying power decreased
What were the two economic problems resulting from regionalism?
● Regional disparity
● Western alienation
What was regional disparity?
● Economic gap between the poorer and more prosperious regions of Canada
- The fishing industry in Atlantic Canada and the forestry, mining, and fishing industires in BC suffered massive layoffs
- Quebec and Ontario were resented
What was western alienation?
● A sense of grievance against hte cnetral provinces in western Canada
- Many people in the Prairies believed that Ottawa's policies favoured central Canada
What did the federal government do in the 1970s that infuriated western Canada?
● The federal government froze the price on petroleum that was exported from western Canada
● The money raised by the tax would be used to subsidize the cost of imported oil in the East
● Alberta felt that they had the right to charge world prices for its oil
What did the Trudeau government do to reduce unemployment and regional disparity?
● Increased transfer payments to the provinces to be used for social services
● Spent millions of dollars on regional projects in certain areas, esp the Atlantic provinces
● Brought in the National Energy Program (NEP)
What were the three aims of the National Energy Program?
● Reduce consumption of oil
● Protect Canadians from rising oil prices
● Make Canada self-sufficient in oil
What did the NEP do?
● It provided funding to Canadian petroleum companies to drill for oil in promising sites in the Arctic and off the coast of Newfoundland
● It encouraged consumers to switch from oil to gas and electric sources of power
What was Alberta's reation to the NEP?
Alberta reacted angrily
Government plans for revenue and spending each year
Define surplus budget
Revenues greater than expenditure
Define debt-carrying charges
Interest payment on debt
Define balanced budget
Expenditures = revenues
What was Mulroney's approad in cutting the debt?
● Cutting back on the role of government in the economy
- Trimming social programs
- Cutting taxes
Was Mulroney successful in reducing government debt? WHy or why not?
● He was not successful
● Canada was hit by recession in 1990
● Businesses failed and workers lost their jobs
● Fewer people paid taxes but more needed welfare and unemployment insurance
● The government was forced to increased taxes and the debt also increased
What was Chretien's approach in cutting the debt
● To inject more money into the economy
● These projects would create jobs, and workers would then spend their earnings and boost the economy
Why and how did Chretien's strategy changed?
● At then end of 1994, interest rates shot up
● Finance Minister Paul Martin announced that Canada could no longer afford "big government"
- It could not afford to continue spending on social services
- He began cutting federal government
Was Chretien successful in reducing govnermnet debt?
What were the consequences in Chretien's strategy to reduce the debt?
● Universities and colleges had to raise their tuition fees
● Health care system suffered badly
● Many jobs in the federal civil service were fired
● Transfers to provinces for post-secondary education was cut