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Flashcards in Ch 13 Deck (73):
1

Demography

● The statistical study of human populations.
● Helps us to understand the causes and consequences of population change
● Population change is a concern to agencies like government and business.
○ Government needs accurate figures of population change to plan things like schools/classrooms.
○ Businesses are interested in this information to plan marketing strategies.

2

Census

● A procedure used to gather information about population
● The total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to a particular time, to all persons in a particular country
● In Canada, since Confederation in 1867:
○ Major census every 10 years (first year of decade)
○ Less-detailed census every 5 years
○ All Canadians are required by law to be counted in the census.

3

Developed Country

● Has the resources to keep their data current (but there still may be errors because it is hard to count street people)
● The most wealthy countries
● Also called "First World" country
● Industrialized
- Citizens well-housed, healthy, and educated
● Infrastructure well developed
- Transportation, electricity, schools, hospitals, etc.

4

Birth rate

● The crude birth rate is calculated by dividing the number of births in one year by the population and then multiplying the result by 1000.

5

Death rate

● Number of deaths in one year ÷ the population, then multiplying the result by 1000 = crude death rate

6

Rate of natural increase

● The rate of natural increase is the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population.

7

Rule of Seventy

● Used to calculate the length of time it would take for a population to double in size.
● It states that doubling time is approximately equal to 70 ÷ the growth rate (in %) per year.
○ ie. Gabon's growth rate is 1.5%
○ 70 ÷ 1.5 = 46.7 ~ [70 ÷ 1.5 (growth rate/per in %) = 46.7 years for the population to double in size.]
○ Therefore, Gabon's doubling time is about 47 years.

8

Immigration

● People entering (moving into) a country permanently

9

Emigration

● People leaving a country permanently

10

Life expectancy

● The average number of years that an individual is expected to live.
● Before the 1700s, the life expectancy was just a little over 30 years.
○ Canada's life expectancy today is over 75 years.

11

World Health Organization

● After WWII, it made improvements to health measures available to all countries.
○ Death rates fell, but birth rates are still high in many developing countries.
○ This is why there is rapid population growth in areas of the world such as Africa, who do not have significant economic development.

12

Demographic Transition Model

● Explains population change by showing changes of 3 elements over a period of time :
○ Birth rates
○ Death rates
○ Overall population numbers (total population growth)
● Assumes that any country with high birth rates and high death rates (Stage 1) will gradually fall (Stages 2 & 3).
● Based on what has happened in developed countries
○ Assumes that countries will pass through periods of industrialization and urbanization on the way to reduced birth and death rates.
● Useful in showing how the population growth rates of countries that are industrializing are in a state of transition.
● Should be used with caution, however, because this transition period is unlikely in some countries, particularly in Africa.

13

Population Pyramids

● Shows age and sex structure of a population
○ Series of horizontal bar graphs for the male and female populations are placed back to back at intervals of 5 years (cohorts)
● 4 types:
○ Stable
○ Early expanding
○ Expanding
○ Contracting

14

Cohorts

● Each bar in a population pyramid is 5 years apart, which is a cohort

15

Dependency ratio

● Proportion of the population being supported to the working age group supporting them

16

4 types of Pyramid Models: EARLY EXPANDING, EXPANDING, STABLE, CONTRACTING

● Early Expanding:
○ Many children; few adults; very few seniors
○ Developing country
○ Typically "Stage 2" of Demographic Transition Model
● Expanding:
○ Many children; fewer adults; even fewer seniors (steeper incline than "Early Expanding")
○ Developing country
○ "Stage 3"
● Stable:
○ Birth and death rates in balance
○ Developed country
○ "Stage 4"
● Contracting:
○ Few children; cannot replace the many adults and seniors
○ Developed country
○ "Stage 5"

17

One child per couple policy

● Each couple can only have one child, which will eventually reduce the overall population over time
● e.g. China
● Law placed when it was realized that the land will not be able to support the huge, growing population

18

"Little Emperor Syndrome"

● Children of single-child families that are raised to not feel the obligations they should for their family and society
○ Usually due to being spoiled as the only child

19

Population distribution

● The way people are spread over Earth's surface

20

Ecumene

● Greeks studying population distribution called their part of the world "ecumene."
● Now, it means permanently inhabited places

21

Population density

● The number of people in a given area
● Population of a country ÷ its area = crude density
○ Useful for general comparisons, but not very effective in larger countries where there are wide variations

22

Physical factors

● Affects population density
● Includes:
○ Climate
○ Landscape
○ Resources
○ Soil
○ Vegetation
○ Water
○ Accessibility

23

Human factors

● Affects population density
● Includes:
○ Government policies
○ Disease
○ Development
○ Culture
○ Communication

24

Arable land

● Land that is suitable for farming

25

Nutritional density

● The amount of nutrition (in calories) that can be produced from the land

26

Carrying capacity

● The idea that land is limited in how much food/goods it can produce with the technology of the time
● As the population increases, the land will be unable to support everyone; then, the population will be reduced by famine and disease until it is back to the carrying capacity or lower.
● The amount of people that the Earth can support

27

How did some people see the growth in population as a problem?

They see it as a contributor to...
● Shortages in energy
● Shortages in housing and foods
● Increase in pollution
● Increase in unemployment
● Increase in the destruction of the environment

28

Why does government need accurate figures of population change? Why do businesses need them?

● The government can plan for such things as the numbers of schools and classrooms that are needed
● Businesses are interested in information about family size, incomes, and consumer habits as they plan their marketing strategies

29

What did early censuses allow rulers to determine?

● the number of people under their rule
● identify taxpayers, potential labourers and soldiers

30

What does census provide?

● A picture for that day of the Canadian population
● Information on population numbers and population characteristics such as age and education

31

Who is required to be counted in the census?

All Canadians are required by law

32

How do governments and businesses find out more information about the population?

● During the census, a selection of people has to give more detailed information about their accommodation, household contents, income, buying habits, and so on
● Other interested groups also carry out surveys to find out about and predict things as market trends, television viewing patterns, and voting preferences

33

Why are demographic figures on a developed country more accurate?

● A developed country has the resources to keep its data current.
○ However its figures will still have a margin for error

34

Why are demographic figures on a developing country less accurate?

● In a developing country, the registration of births and deaths is not as complete as in developed countries
● Census takers may not be able to reach remote areas
● People in shanty towns are not counted because they are not considered permanent residents of cities
● Some people may avoid census takers out of fear of authorities, the wish to avoid taxation, or conflicts with governments over population policies

35

Why is it difficult to make comparisons between countries for things such as literacy or the size of an urban location?

● The definitions may differ
● Published numbers of people in fast-growing cities can often vary widely
● Figures may be outdated, especially if a country has not held a recent census

36

Why are demographers most interested in statistics?

It helps them predict and explain changes in society.

37

What are the three components of population change?

● How many people are born
● How many die
● How many move in or out of an area

38

What does the number of working women in a society have an effect on?

● Birth rate
● Diet of families -- increasing the amount of packaged and pre-prepared foods they eat

39

What is the equation for increase or decrease in population?

Births - deaths + immigrants - emigrants = change in population

40

How do demographers compare the relationship between the number of births and the size of the population in each country?

● Demographers do this by using measurements called birth rates and death rates
● Rates per thousand when figuring population change

41

How is the crude birth/death rate calculated?

Dividing the number of births/deaths in one year by the population and then multiplying the result by 1000

42

How is the rate of natural increase calculated?

Subtracting deaths from births

43

What is the rule of seventy?

● One way of calculating the exponential population growth
● States that doubling time is approximately equal to seventy divided by the growth rate (in percent) per year

44

What is the net migration rate?

The difference between the immigration rates and the emigration rates

45

How do large-scale mass migrations affect the structure of population by age and sex?

● Most immigrants are young and generally single males
- Gives the host countries a younger population that will eventually result in a higher birth rate

46

What contributed to the high death rates before 1700s?

● Disease
● Poor medical care
● Poor nutrition
● Unsanitary living conditions

47

Why did families need to have many children before 1700s?

● So they can ensure a few survived
● Able to help farm the land, from which most people made a living
● Provide security for parents in old age

48

What mainly resulted in population growth after 1750?

Falling death rates

49

What contributed to the falling death rates after 1750?

● Agricultural revolution increased food production -- better diets
● Hygiene and medical knowledge improved

50

What are the three most likely reasons for the falling birth rate?

● Economic development
● Move to cities
● Rising standards of living

51

What is the cycle of poverty?

● Limited resources and attempts to improve development are swallowed up by young populations
● Countries need to provide employment for the increasing numbers of young people entering the labour market
- Young men in particular want to find opportunities to improve their standard of living
● Result in underemployed generation and threaten the stability of entire regions
● Countries remained in poverty

52

Why does China has a huge population?

● The policies adopted by the Communist government in 1949 encouraged increases in the population of 540 million
● The leader Mao Zedong saw this as a way to make China into a great power

53

What policy was launched in 1980 in China to ease the population pressure?

One Child Policy

54

What are the pros of the one child policy?

● Cash rewards, free medical care, and improved educational and housing opportunities were offered as incentives for those who had one child
● China's birth rate had been halved

55

What are the cons of the one child policy?

● People who did not cooperate with the policy were fined for each child after the first-born
● Lost many medical and educational privileges if they were not first-born
● Pressure to be sterilized and have abortions
● Imbalanced sex ratio--people valued boys more

56

Why did urban dwellers support the one child policy?

That thought that one child gives them the financial means to take advantage of the luxuries available in most cities

57

Why didn't the one child policy work out in the rural areas?

Labour was needed

58

What are some long-term problems of the one child policy?

● The growth in the rural population is putting more pressure on farmland
- This may lead to a migration of massive proportions by the younger rural population to cities
● Aging population
● Little Emperor Syndrome

59

What are crude densities and how are they useful?

● Population densities calculated by dividing the population of a country by its area
● They can be used for general comparisons
● Do not take into account the wide variations that exist within larger countries

60

How does climate affect population density?

Areas that are very dry or very cold generally have lower densities

61

How does landscape affect population density?

Lowlands near the rims of continents have the highest densities

62

How do resources affect population density?

Areas rich in a variety of resources will attract higher densities

63

How do soils affect population density?

Rich river valley and lowland soils result in higher densities

64

How does vegetation affect population density?

● Areas of very dense vegetation, such as rainforests, have low densities
● In temperate zones, former forested areas and grasslands have high densities

65

How does water affect population density?

A reliable water supply from rainfall or rivers is necessary for higher densities

66

How does accessibility affect population density?

Areas that are easier to reach by land or sea will increase in population

67

How do communications affect population density?

Areas that are easier to reach by land or sea will increase in population

68

How does culture affect population density?

Nomadic or agricultural cultures may determine the level of density

69

How does development affect population density?

Areas with a highly developed economy will have higher densities

70

How does disease affect population density?

Areas of high incidence of disease will have low densities

71

How do government policies affect population density?

May encourage settlement in remote areas, as in the case of Brazil and the Amazon basin or in Communist USSR, where settlement was forced

72

If everyone were to live at the North American standard of living, how many resources would be required?

The resources of 3 Earths would be required.

73

Why is it hard to tell how fast the world's population will grow?

● The number of developing countries that will improve their living standards to a point where birth rates begin to fall cannot be predicted.
- Age structure is an important factor-- developing countries with high numbers of young dependents will likely experience greater population growth than developed countries
● Changes in birth rates cannot be foretold.
- There may be a major cultural change that could change fertility rates like the baby boom after WWII.
● Birth rates will continue to decline worldwide, but the large base in countries like India means increases will continue to be too high for the population to be sustained without environmental damage.
● Future will be determined by the youths of developing nations
- Factors include the age at which they choose to marry and the number of children they have.