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Flashcards in Ch 13 Deck (73):


● The statistical study of human populations.
● Helps us to understand the causes and consequences of population change
● Population change is a concern to agencies like government and business.
○ Government needs accurate figures of population change to plan things like schools/classrooms.
○ Businesses are interested in this information to plan marketing strategies.



● A procedure used to gather information about population
● The total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to a particular time, to all persons in a particular country
● In Canada, since Confederation in 1867:
○ Major census every 10 years (first year of decade)
○ Less-detailed census every 5 years
○ All Canadians are required by law to be counted in the census.


Developed Country

● Has the resources to keep their data current (but there still may be errors because it is hard to count street people)
● The most wealthy countries
● Also called "First World" country
● Industrialized
- Citizens well-housed, healthy, and educated
● Infrastructure well developed
- Transportation, electricity, schools, hospitals, etc.


Birth rate

● The crude birth rate is calculated by dividing the number of births in one year by the population and then multiplying the result by 1000.


Death rate

● Number of deaths in one year ÷ the population, then multiplying the result by 1000 = crude death rate


Rate of natural increase

● The rate of natural increase is the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population.


Rule of Seventy

● Used to calculate the length of time it would take for a population to double in size.
● It states that doubling time is approximately equal to 70 ÷ the growth rate (in %) per year.
○ ie. Gabon's growth rate is 1.5%
○ 70 ÷ 1.5 = 46.7 ~ [70 ÷ 1.5 (growth rate/per in %) = 46.7 years for the population to double in size.]
○ Therefore, Gabon's doubling time is about 47 years.



● People entering (moving into) a country permanently



● People leaving a country permanently


Life expectancy

● The average number of years that an individual is expected to live.
● Before the 1700s, the life expectancy was just a little over 30 years.
○ Canada's life expectancy today is over 75 years.


World Health Organization

● After WWII, it made improvements to health measures available to all countries.
○ Death rates fell, but birth rates are still high in many developing countries.
○ This is why there is rapid population growth in areas of the world such as Africa, who do not have significant economic development.


Demographic Transition Model

● Explains population change by showing changes of 3 elements over a period of time :
○ Birth rates
○ Death rates
○ Overall population numbers (total population growth)
● Assumes that any country with high birth rates and high death rates (Stage 1) will gradually fall (Stages 2 & 3).
● Based on what has happened in developed countries
○ Assumes that countries will pass through periods of industrialization and urbanization on the way to reduced birth and death rates.
● Useful in showing how the population growth rates of countries that are industrializing are in a state of transition.
● Should be used with caution, however, because this transition period is unlikely in some countries, particularly in Africa.


Population Pyramids

● Shows age and sex structure of a population
○ Series of horizontal bar graphs for the male and female populations are placed back to back at intervals of 5 years (cohorts)
● 4 types:
○ Stable
○ Early expanding
○ Expanding
○ Contracting



● Each bar in a population pyramid is 5 years apart, which is a cohort


Dependency ratio

● Proportion of the population being supported to the working age group supporting them



● Early Expanding:
○ Many children; few adults; very few seniors
○ Developing country
○ Typically "Stage 2" of Demographic Transition Model
● Expanding:
○ Many children; fewer adults; even fewer seniors (steeper incline than "Early Expanding")
○ Developing country
○ "Stage 3"
● Stable:
○ Birth and death rates in balance
○ Developed country
○ "Stage 4"
● Contracting:
○ Few children; cannot replace the many adults and seniors
○ Developed country
○ "Stage 5"


One child per couple policy

● Each couple can only have one child, which will eventually reduce the overall population over time
● e.g. China
● Law placed when it was realized that the land will not be able to support the huge, growing population


"Little Emperor Syndrome"

● Children of single-child families that are raised to not feel the obligations they should for their family and society
○ Usually due to being spoiled as the only child


Population distribution

● The way people are spread over Earth's surface



● Greeks studying population distribution called their part of the world "ecumene."
● Now, it means permanently inhabited places


Population density

● The number of people in a given area
● Population of a country ÷ its area = crude density
○ Useful for general comparisons, but not very effective in larger countries where there are wide variations


Physical factors

● Affects population density
● Includes:
○ Climate
○ Landscape
○ Resources
○ Soil
○ Vegetation
○ Water
○ Accessibility


Human factors

● Affects population density
● Includes:
○ Government policies
○ Disease
○ Development
○ Culture
○ Communication


Arable land

● Land that is suitable for farming


Nutritional density

● The amount of nutrition (in calories) that can be produced from the land


Carrying capacity

● The idea that land is limited in how much food/goods it can produce with the technology of the time
● As the population increases, the land will be unable to support everyone; then, the population will be reduced by famine and disease until it is back to the carrying capacity or lower.
● The amount of people that the Earth can support


How did some people see the growth in population as a problem?

They see it as a contributor to...
● Shortages in energy
● Shortages in housing and foods
● Increase in pollution
● Increase in unemployment
● Increase in the destruction of the environment


Why does government need accurate figures of population change? Why do businesses need them?

● The government can plan for such things as the numbers of schools and classrooms that are needed
● Businesses are interested in information about family size, incomes, and consumer habits as they plan their marketing strategies


What did early censuses allow rulers to determine?

● the number of people under their rule
● identify taxpayers, potential labourers and soldiers


What does census provide?

● A picture for that day of the Canadian population
● Information on population numbers and population characteristics such as age and education


Who is required to be counted in the census?

All Canadians are required by law


How do governments and businesses find out more information about the population?

● During the census, a selection of people has to give more detailed information about their accommodation, household contents, income, buying habits, and so on
● Other interested groups also carry out surveys to find out about and predict things as market trends, television viewing patterns, and voting preferences


Why are demographic figures on a developed country more accurate?

● A developed country has the resources to keep its data current.
○ However its figures will still have a margin for error


Why are demographic figures on a developing country less accurate?

● In a developing country, the registration of births and deaths is not as complete as in developed countries
● Census takers may not be able to reach remote areas
● People in shanty towns are not counted because they are not considered permanent residents of cities
● Some people may avoid census takers out of fear of authorities, the wish to avoid taxation, or conflicts with governments over population policies


Why is it difficult to make comparisons between countries for things such as literacy or the size of an urban location?

● The definitions may differ
● Published numbers of people in fast-growing cities can often vary widely
● Figures may be outdated, especially if a country has not held a recent census


Why are demographers most interested in statistics?

It helps them predict and explain changes in society.


What are the three components of population change?

● How many people are born
● How many die
● How many move in or out of an area


What does the number of working women in a society have an effect on?

● Birth rate
● Diet of families -- increasing the amount of packaged and pre-prepared foods they eat


What is the equation for increase or decrease in population?

Births - deaths + immigrants - emigrants = change in population


How do demographers compare the relationship between the number of births and the size of the population in each country?

● Demographers do this by using measurements called birth rates and death rates
● Rates per thousand when figuring population change


How is the crude birth/death rate calculated?

Dividing the number of births/deaths in one year by the population and then multiplying the result by 1000


How is the rate of natural increase calculated?

Subtracting deaths from births


What is the rule of seventy?

● One way of calculating the exponential population growth
● States that doubling time is approximately equal to seventy divided by the growth rate (in percent) per year


What is the net migration rate?

The difference between the immigration rates and the emigration rates


How do large-scale mass migrations affect the structure of population by age and sex?

● Most immigrants are young and generally single males
- Gives the host countries a younger population that will eventually result in a higher birth rate


What contributed to the high death rates before 1700s?

● Disease
● Poor medical care
● Poor nutrition
● Unsanitary living conditions


Why did families need to have many children before 1700s?

● So they can ensure a few survived
● Able to help farm the land, from which most people made a living
● Provide security for parents in old age


What mainly resulted in population growth after 1750?

Falling death rates


What contributed to the falling death rates after 1750?

● Agricultural revolution increased food production -- better diets
● Hygiene and medical knowledge improved


What are the three most likely reasons for the falling birth rate?

● Economic development
● Move to cities
● Rising standards of living


What is the cycle of poverty?

● Limited resources and attempts to improve development are swallowed up by young populations
● Countries need to provide employment for the increasing numbers of young people entering the labour market
- Young men in particular want to find opportunities to improve their standard of living
● Result in underemployed generation and threaten the stability of entire regions
● Countries remained in poverty


Why does China has a huge population?

● The policies adopted by the Communist government in 1949 encouraged increases in the population of 540 million
● The leader Mao Zedong saw this as a way to make China into a great power


What policy was launched in 1980 in China to ease the population pressure?

One Child Policy


What are the pros of the one child policy?

● Cash rewards, free medical care, and improved educational and housing opportunities were offered as incentives for those who had one child
● China's birth rate had been halved


What are the cons of the one child policy?

● People who did not cooperate with the policy were fined for each child after the first-born
● Lost many medical and educational privileges if they were not first-born
● Pressure to be sterilized and have abortions
● Imbalanced sex ratio--people valued boys more


Why did urban dwellers support the one child policy?

That thought that one child gives them the financial means to take advantage of the luxuries available in most cities


Why didn't the one child policy work out in the rural areas?

Labour was needed


What are some long-term problems of the one child policy?

● The growth in the rural population is putting more pressure on farmland
- This may lead to a migration of massive proportions by the younger rural population to cities
● Aging population
● Little Emperor Syndrome


What are crude densities and how are they useful?

● Population densities calculated by dividing the population of a country by its area
● They can be used for general comparisons
● Do not take into account the wide variations that exist within larger countries


How does climate affect population density?

Areas that are very dry or very cold generally have lower densities


How does landscape affect population density?

Lowlands near the rims of continents have the highest densities


How do resources affect population density?

Areas rich in a variety of resources will attract higher densities


How do soils affect population density?

Rich river valley and lowland soils result in higher densities


How does vegetation affect population density?

● Areas of very dense vegetation, such as rainforests, have low densities
● In temperate zones, former forested areas and grasslands have high densities


How does water affect population density?

A reliable water supply from rainfall or rivers is necessary for higher densities


How does accessibility affect population density?

Areas that are easier to reach by land or sea will increase in population


How do communications affect population density?

Areas that are easier to reach by land or sea will increase in population


How does culture affect population density?

Nomadic or agricultural cultures may determine the level of density


How does development affect population density?

Areas with a highly developed economy will have higher densities


How does disease affect population density?

Areas of high incidence of disease will have low densities


How do government policies affect population density?

May encourage settlement in remote areas, as in the case of Brazil and the Amazon basin or in Communist USSR, where settlement was forced


If everyone were to live at the North American standard of living, how many resources would be required?

The resources of 3 Earths would be required.


Why is it hard to tell how fast the world's population will grow?

● The number of developing countries that will improve their living standards to a point where birth rates begin to fall cannot be predicted.
- Age structure is an important factor-- developing countries with high numbers of young dependents will likely experience greater population growth than developed countries
● Changes in birth rates cannot be foretold.
- There may be a major cultural change that could change fertility rates like the baby boom after WWII.
● Birth rates will continue to decline worldwide, but the large base in countries like India means increases will continue to be too high for the population to be sustained without environmental damage.
● Future will be determined by the youths of developing nations
- Factors include the age at which they choose to marry and the number of children they have.