Flashcards in Ch 6 Deck (168):
● The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
● Started after the end of WWII and lasted over 40 years
● It did not erupt into an open war
● A Russian clerk at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa
● Decided to defect from the Soviet Union to Canada
○ Had documents that proved the existence of a Soviet spy ring within the Canadian government.
○ Nobody believed him at first, but his claims were eventually heard.
○ Was given another identity after the ordeal to protect him from the Soviets.
● Powers capable of inflicting massive destruction
● The Soviet Union and the United States are examples of it
● Economies were based on private enterprise, with individuals investing in business for profit
● Citizens had basic freedoms such a free press and freedom of speech
● The United States and most Western countries were examples of it
● North Atlantic Treaty Organization
● Formed in 1949
● A military alliance including Canada, US, Britain, and other Western European nations
● Any attack on one NATO member was to be treated as an attack on all
● Established by the USSR in 1955
● This alliance made up of Eastern EUropean countries, was to protect these countries and the Soviet Union from attack
● North American Air Defence Agreement
● Canada and the US agreed in 1957 to establish NORAD
● Integrated the air-defence forces of the US and Canada under joint command
● Renamed to the North American Aerospace Defence Command in 1981
● Established in April 1945 by fifty one countries
● Based on the idea of collective security
● Include General Assembly as a forum and Security Council as a body to maintain peace and security
● Body of U.N that's responsible for maintaining peace and security
● Have five permanent members
● World Health Organization
● Agencies created by UN to abolish disease and famine
● United Nations Children's Fund
● Agencies created by UN to abolish disease and famine
● International Monetary Fund
● To stabilize the world economy by helping countries that face great debt and the collapse of their currencies
● Started when North Korea (communist) invaded South Korea (democratic)
● UN force was sent to force the invaders to retreat
● A ceasefire was reached in 1953
● Increased tensions between the West and the communist nations
● Egypt took control of Suez Canal that was previously owned by British and French investors
● Israel invaded Egypt, supported by Britain and France
● USSR supplied Egypt immediately
● The US was angry
● Canada asked UN to mediate the two forces
Louis St. Laurent
● Liberal PM.
● Denounced British & French intervention during Suez Crisis, refused to support them
● Canada's Minister of External Affairs
● Went to U.N. during Suez Crisis told U.N. Emergency force to be sent to Suez Canal to separate and mediate between the rival armies
● Defused the Suez Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
● USSR was installing offensive nuclear missile bases in Cuba
● US blockaded Cuba
● Soviet ships agreed to dismantle the missile bases in exchange for a promise that the US would not invade Cuba
● A state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft developed by Canada and the AV Row Company as a part of its military program in 1950s.
● Project was cancelled because when the superpowers developed long-range missiles, interceptor fighter planes like the Arrow became useless.
● Also was very expensive
● A popular opinion states that the Senior American officials wanted to kill the project because they could not build the fighter by themselves.
● Became Prime Minister in 1957
● Did not get along well with John Kennedy (U.S. President)
● Canadian PM during Cuban Missile Crisis
○ Initially refused to place Canada's NORAD forces on alert and did not allow US planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian basis.
○ Eventually put Canadian troops on alert.
● Soviet premier during Cuban Missile Crisis
○ Refused to remove missiles from Cuba, at first, but agreed to dismantle the missile bases at the last minute.
● Vietnam was divided into two--north = communist supported by USSR and China, south = supported by US
● In 1968, Tet Offensive and My Lai
● The last US troops were pulled out in 1973 and South Vietnam fell in 1975
● Not a superpower, but still has large/moderate influence and international recognition
● Canada was a middle power-- Trudeau attempted to bridge gaps between East/West & North/South during the Cold War
● A liberal elected prime minister in 1968.
● Believed Canada's foreign policy should be less dependent on U.S. approval
● Formed the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1968
Free Trade Agreement
● Agreement signed in 1989 between Canada & U.S. to allow goods produced in each country to cross border tariff-free
● North American Free Trade Agreement
● Signed in 1992 between Canada, Mexico, and U.S. to create a free trade zone amongst countries
● Associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms near the end of the cold war
● A policy of reconstruction; political movement for reformation in the Soviet Union
● Instituted by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev near the end of the cold war.
● A Soviet policy of openness; allows for open discussions of political/social issues.
1. Process which regions and countries in world are becoming interconnected
2. A vast network of business, communications, and cultural links among countries.
● Central African country that was torn apart by ethnic rivalries.
○ France/Belgium sent troops to try to control the slaughter
○ A small detachment of UN peacekeepers were sent under the command of Canadian Major General Roméo Dallaire.
● East African nation than had been ravaged by years of civil war and starvation.
● UN launched "Operation Restore Hope" here in 1992.
○ Mission was directed by the US, but Canadian forces & other countries helped distribute food/essential supplies.
● Foreign Investment Review Agency
● Established by Pierre Trudeau
● Ensured that foreign establishment of business in Canada was beneficial to country
What happened in 1945?
● World War II ends
● United Nations in created
What happened in 1949?
● United States, Canada, and ten Western countries form NATO
● Communists take over China
What happened in 1950?
● North Korea invades South Korea
● Korean War begins
What happened in 1955?
● The Warsaw Pact was established
What happened in 1956?
● Lester Pearson, as Canada's Minister of External Affairs, works to defuse the Suez crisis
What happened in 1957?
John Diefenbaker became prime minister.
When was the Vietnam War?
When was the Berlin Wall built?
When did the Cuban missile crisis occur?
Who became prime minister in 1963?
Liberal leader Lester Pearson
When did USSR invade Afghanistan?
What happened in 1989?
● Berlin Wall is destroyed, marking symbolic end of Cold War
● Canada-US Free Trade Agreement is implemented
When did Canada participate in the Gulf War?
When did Canada join NAFTA
When did Canadian air force join NATO attacks on Yugoslavia?
What did Igor Gouzenko do after he decided to defect from the USSR to Canada?
● He took the documents, proving that a Soviet spy ring was operating within the Canadian government, to the Ottawa Journal and tried to convince the newspaper of the Soviet spies' existence
● He went to the offices of the RCMP, the department of justice, and the prime minister's office the second time
What was the reaction to Gouzenko's documents initially?
● No one paid attention
What did the RCMP do to people suspected of being Soviet spies?
● The RCMP arrested several people in February 1946
● They kept the suspects in isolation, without charge, and without legal counsel
What happened to the people who were accused of involving in the Soviet spy ring?
● Eighteen people were brought to trial
● Eight were found guilty and imprisoned
What was likely the spy ring's objective?
● Possibly trying to discover the secrets of the atomic bomb
- The Soviets had learned very little
How did USSR and US "fight" during the Cold War?
● Used espionage (spies)
● Helped their allies in "little wars" and revolutions -- proxy war
● Built stockpiles of conventional arms, powerful nuclear weapons, biological and chemical weapons, long-range bombers, missiles, and atomic submarines
● Space race/arms race
● Compete for political influence
● Signed military alliances with supporting countries
● Used propaganda
What made USSR and US superpowers?
The military strength that are capable of inflicting massive destruction
What are the differences between communism and capitalism?
USSR -- Communism
● the government controlled all industry and commerce
● no political opposition was tolerated
US/most Western countries -- Capitalism
● Their economies were based on private enterprise, with individuals investing in business for profit
● Citizens had basic freedoms such a free press and freedom of speech
Why were Western countries suspicious of communism?
● They had opposite ideologies
● They feared that communists aimed to overthrow Western societies in a world revolution
● They believed that communism will keep spreading out
Why was USSR suspicious of Western countries? What did USSR do?
● The Soviet Union believed that the Western countries might try to invade Soviet territory through Europe, particularly through East Germany
● USSR created a buffer in the Eastern Europe and established communist governments there
What is red menace?
● The term used to describe the Soviets
How did the Conservative Party try to make red menace an issue in 1949? What was Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent's response?
● The leader accused the government of harbouring communists in the civil service
● Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent refused to outlaw communism
- He reminded Canadians that such tactics were the trademarks of dictatorships, not democracies
What groups of Canadians came under suspicion of being communists? What actions were taken against some of these people?
● Union leaders, peace activists, artists, and intellectuals who were seen in any way to criticize the Canadian government came under suspicion
● The RCMP Special Branch was set up to watch those who "might be or might become" a security risk
● Defence industries secretly sent lists of their employees to Ottawa for screening
● Anyone suspected could be prosecuted, fired, and blacklisted--prevented from finding another job
What was Quebec's stand on the communism issue? What law was passed?
● Premier Maurice Duplessis took a strong stand against communism
● Police raided offices and private homes in search of "revolutionary" material
● The Padlock Law was used to shut down suspected organizations and newspapers
When and why was the NATO formed?
● It was formed in 1949 by Canada, US, and ten Western countries
● It was a military alliance to protect Western countries from the threat of invasion by the Soviet Union
What was the principle of NATO?
● Any attack on one NATO member was to be treated as an attack on all
● If conventional weapons were not sufficient, they would use tactical nuclear weapons -- or even wage total nuclear war
What did the Soviet Union do in response to NATO?
The Soviet Union felt threatened by NATO countries, and it established the Warsaw Pact in 1955
What is the Warsaw Pact?
● It is an alliance made up of Eastern European countries
● It was to protect these countries and the Soviet Union from attack
What became a symbol of the Cold War?
● The Berlin Wall built by communist-controlled Eat Germany in 1961
● The wall was to keep East Berliners in and West Berliners out
What is the "Iron Curtain"?
It is the dividing line between the Western European and communist countries
What commitments did Canada make as a member of NATO?
● It agreed to keep a full army brigade and several air squadrons in Europe
● It built and supplied military bases overseas
● Canadian ships and aircraft tracked the movements of Soviet submarines
● Canadian forces participated regularly in military exercises with Canada's allies
How did membership in NATO affect Canada's foreign policy?
Canada adapt its defence policy to those of its allies
What are the three lines of radar stations that the US build across Canada?
● The Pinetree Line
● The Mid-Canada Line
● The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line (in the Arctic)
What were the radar stations designed to do?
These stations were designed to detect a surprise Soviet attack over the North Pole, giving the US time to launch a counterattack
What was significant about the radar stations?
For the first time, US military personnel were stationed on Canadian soil
Why was Canada willing to let the US station in Canada?
Most Canadians accepted this loss of independence as the price of added security against an attack from the USSR
Why did the radar stations become useless?
● The superpowers had developed intercontinental ballistic missiles, armed with nuclear warheads
● Missiles launched from the USSR could reach North American cities within thirty minutes
● The radar stations in Canada would not be able to detect them in time for anything to be done
What did Canada and the US agree in 1957 to meet the possible threat of Soviet attack?
They established an integrated North American Air Defence agreement (NORAD)
What does the NORAD include?
● It would include fighter forces, missile bases, and air-defence radar, all controlled by a central command station built deep within Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado
● A separate Canadian command post, under joint control, was established deep inside tunnels at North Bay, Ontario
What did the federal government develop to prepare the citizens of nuclear war?
● The federal government developed civil defence plans and cities prepared to protect their populations
● Some cities had nuclear shelters in deep basements or subway lines
● If an attack were to occur, sirens would sound a warning and people would try to find shelter
● Schools ran drills to teach students to "duck and cover" or to lie in ditches
What was established to prevent another global conflict and when was it created?
The United Nations was created in April 1945 when delegates from fifty one countries including Canada, drew up a charter for the UN
What idea was the UN based on?
● The United Nations was an international agency that would prevent another global conflict
● It was based on the idea of collective security, as the League of Nations before it had been
What is the General Assembly of the UN and what was its power?
● It provides a forum in which member nations can debate issues of concern
- Each member is given a seat and the right to vote on issues
● The UN was given three powers it could use against aggressor nations
1. Condemn the aggressor through speeches and resolutions
2. Use economic sanctions, urging members not to trade with the aggressor
3. Respond militarily by sending in an armed force
● Over the decades, these measures have had only limited success
What is the Security Council of the UN?
It is the body of the United Nations that is responsible for maintaining peace and security
How many seats are there and who hold the seats?
● There are 15 seats in total
● Five permanent members--the "Big Five" powers--Britain, France, the US, Russia/USSR, and China
● Ten non-permanent members, each holding a two-year term
How are decisions made in the Security Council?
● Decisions need the consent of nine members
● Each of the five permanent members has the power of veto--the right to reject actions with which they disagree
- The use of veto has often prevented the UN from taking decisive action
What did the founders of the UN pledge to do?
To abolish disease and famine and to protect human rights
What agencies were created to achieve the goal of abolishing disease and famine?
● World Health Organization (WHO)
● United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
What organization was created to stabilize the world economy?
International Monetary Fund
How does the International Monetary Fund achieve its goal?
It helps countries that face great debt and the collapse of their currencies
What were Canada's contribution in the UN?
● Canada has been a strong supporter of the UN since its creation
● Through a variety of UN agencies, Canada has aided refugees from war or natural disasters and worked on development projects in various countries
● By 1999, Canadian peacekeepers had been involved in every UN operation since the start of these missions in 1956
What was the status in Korea before the war broke out?
● North Korea was a communist state, supported by the USSR and communist China
● South Korea was a fragile democracy backed by the US
When and Why did the Korean War break out?
In 1950, war broke out as North Korea tried to invade South Korea
How did Canada participate in the Korean War?
● Canada sent thousands of troops and three naval destroyers to Korea
● At the UN, Lester Pearson, Canada's Minister of External Affairs, urged all sides to agree to a ceasefire
What caused to Suez Canal Crisis?
● The Suez Canal provided a shorter sea route from Europe to the Indian Ocean
- It was built and privately owned by British and French investors
● In 1956, Egypt's president Gamal Abdel Nasser took over the canal
● Neighbouring state of Israel was frightened as Egypt threatened to bar ships to and from Israel
● Britain and France supported an Israeli invasion and landed troops in the canal zone, ignoring a UN resolution to cease hostilities
● The USSR immediately offered Egypt financial aid and missiles
What role did Canada play in the Suez Crisis?
● Canadian public opinion on the crisis was divided
- The Conservative Party felt it was their duty to support Britain
● Liberal PM Louis St. Laurent, however, denounced the British and French intervention and refused to support them
● Lester Pearson went to the UN to try to work towards a solution
- He proposed that a UN Emergency Force be sent to separate and mediate between the rival armies
- Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Why did Cuba turn to the USSR for support?
● In 1959, Cuban rebels, led by Fidel Castro, overthrew Cuba's pro-US leader in a revolution
● US imposed trade and economic sanctions on Cuba
● In 1961 the US backed an invasion of the island by a group of anti-Castro Cubans (Bay of Pigs)
- The invasion was a failure, but it encouraged Cuba to turn to the USSR for support
Why did the US blockade Cuba?
● In October 1962, US planes took photographs showing that the USSR was installing offensive nuclear missile bases in Cuba
- Direct threat to US security
● President JFK announced a naval and air blockade of Cuba
Why didn't a nuclear war break out in the Cuban Missile Crisis?
● Soviet ships sailed towards the US ships that were blockading the island at first
- Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at first refused to remove the missiles
● At the last minute, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile bases in exchange for a promise that the US would not invade Cuba
What did the US expect Canada to do during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The US expected Canada--its partner in NORAD--to provide unconditional support of its policies
What was PM Diefenbaker response to the Cuban Missile Crisis?
● PM Diefenbaker was reluctant to have Canada drawn into a major conflict that seemed largely rooted in US policy and interests
● Diefenbaker preferred that the US send a fact-finding mission to Cuba and implied that he did not believe the US photographs
● The Canadian government at first refused to place Canada's NORAD forces on alert--nor did it allow US planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian bases
- Eventually, Diefenbaker did put Canadian troops on alert
● Diefenbaker believed he was defending Canada's independence--80% disagreed
What was the Avro Arrow?
It was a state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft developed by the Canadian government and the AV Row (Avro) Company in 1950s
What happened to the Avro Arrow project?
● It was cancelled by the Diefenbaker government
- The existing planes were cut up for scrap
- Most of Avro's designers and engineers moved to the US
Why was the Avro Arrow cancelled?
● Some believed that Americans conspired to kill the project because they could not build one themselves
● Others believed that Diefenbaker hated the Arrow because it is a Liberal-initiated project
● Most historians agreed that the Arrow was too expansive and had to be shut down
What issue was the ruling Conservative Party divided on in 1963?
The Nuclear Issue
What did the minister of external affairs feel about nuclear weapons?
● He felt Canada should be a non-nuclear nation
● He argued that it was hypocritical to urge the UN to work for disarmament while accepting nuclear weapons
What did the defence minister feel about nuclear weapons?
He insisted that nuclear weapons were vital in protecting Canada against communist aggression
What were the parties' campaign in 1963 election?
● The Liberals, under the leadership of Lester Pearson, proposed that Canadian forces accept nuclear weapons under certain conditions
- Many business leaders and influential newspapers supported the Liberals, fearing that Diefenbaker's anti-Americanism would injure trade and investment from the US
● Prime Minister Diefenbaker and the Conservatives appealed to Canadian nationalism, including Canada's right to decide for itself on international matters
What was the result of 1963 election?
The Liberals formed a minority government
What was the status in Vietnam before the war broke out?
● Vietnam was divided into two
● North was communist controlled--supported by USSR and China
● South was more a dictatorship than a democracy--supported by US
- Americans felt that if the south should fall to communism, then other Asian states would also fall, like a set of dominoes
How did American supports change overtime in the Vietnam War?
● At first, the US offered only military advice and economic help to the South Vietnamese
● By the 1960s, it was sending US troops as well
● In 1965, US President LBJ increased the number of US troops and authorized the bombing of North Vietnam
● In 1973, US President Nixon pulled all US troops out of Vietnam
What role did television do on the Vietnam War?
● It was the first war recorded by television cameras
● As Americans watched Vietnamese villages being bombed, some began questioning their involvement
● Anti-war protests were held across the country, as more and more Americans disagreed with their government's actions
- The My Lai Massacre and the Tet Offensive also added to the dissatisfaction
What was the My Lai Massacre? The Tet Offensive?
● In 1968, US soldiers massacred women and children in the village of My Lai.
● Tet Offensive was launched by North Vietnamese, where they simultaneously attacked cities throughout South Vietnam and briefly seized the US embassy in the city of Saigon.
How did the Vietnam War end?
● After US troops left Vietnam in 1973, a North Vietnamese offensive crushed the South Vietnamese army in 1975
● Vietnam was unified under communist rule
What is the Voice of Women?
● It is an organization set up to lobby government and educate the public to promote peace and nuclear disarmament
● In 1961, Canadian activist Therese Casgrain helped form the Quebec chapter of the Voice of Women
● Its members used political demonstrations before these became a popular method of protest
What were the Canadians' reactions to the Vietnam War?
● Some Canadians benefited from the war
- Canadian firms sold goods such as berest, boots, airplane engines, and explosives to the US Defense Department
● Most people saw communism as a real threat to Western security
● Many were not sure that the peasants of Vietnam were "better dead than Red"
What was Prime Minister Pearson's opinion on the Vietnam War?
● Pearson shared the growing doubts that many Canadians had about the war
● Pearson criticized Operation Rolling Thunder--the name of the US bombing campaign of North Vietnam in 1965
What was Pierre Trudeau's goal in foreign policy?
Trudeau wanted a foreign policy that was less dependent on US approval
What did Trudeau do in 1970 and 1976 that enraged the US and why?
● In 1970, Canada officially recognized the communist government of the People's Republic of China
● Mainland China was clearly a great power
● Also, as a major purchaser of Canadian wheat and other goods, it was an important trading partner
● In 1976, Trudeau became the first leader of a NATO country to pay a state visit to Fidel Castro's communist Cuba
What was Trudeau's approach to national defence?
● Trudeau wanted to scale back Canada's participation in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union in the hope that this would ease Cold War tensions
- From 1970 to 1972, nuclear missiles were removed from Canada's NATO forces in Europe
- Bomarc missile sites were dismantled
- Canada became nuclear-free in 1984
● Trudeau also cut the national defence budget and reduced Canada's NATO contingent in Europe
● Canada did continue to participate in NATO and NORAD
Why was there a huge economic gap between the North and the South?
● Most of the new African and Asian nations that had emerged from colonial rule after WWII were located in the southern hemisphere
● They were also far less industrialized than countries in the northern hemisphere
What had Canada become under the Trudeau government and what did it do?
● Canada had become a "middle power", building links between East and West, North and South
● Trudeau's efforts to reduce nuclear weapons and to establish trade and sporting links with communist states were part of this plan
● Trudeau called for more aid for the poor countries of the world--trade and aid
What was formed in 1968 to bridge the North-South gap?
● The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was formed in 1968
● CIDA's responsibility was to boost foreign aid to less industrialized countries
● Countries receiving aid would have to agree to use it to buy products manufactured in Canada--trade and aid
Canada's membership in which two organizations allowed Canada to be in a good position to build bridges between North and South?
● The Commonwealth
● La Francophonie
What was the Commonwealth?
The Commonwealth was made up of several countries that had once belonged to the British Empire
What was the la Francophonie?
La Francophonie was an organization of French-speaking states, many former colonies of France
Why did Canada's membership in the Commonwealth and la Francophonie allowed Canada to be in a good position to build bridges between North and South?
Both organizations had many members that were less industrialized and both offered a forum for discussing solutions to the North-South gap
What was the Colombo Plan?
● In 1950, Commonwealth countries established the Colombo Plan to provide money and aid to less developed countries in the organization
● Canada contributed by inviting overseas students to study in Canada and sending Canadian experts overseas to give technical assistance
What happened on July 21, 1969?
● US astronauts from the Apollo XI spacecraft landed on the moon
● The first person to set foot on the moon's surface was Neil Armstrong
What was the ozone layer and what caused the damage?
● The ozone layer is the part of the Earth's upper atmosphere that protects the planet from UV rays coming from the sun
● In 1976, scientists discovered damage to the ozone layer, caused by chemicals used by industry and in refrigerators, and spray cans
● Canada and other countries passed legislation restricting the manufacture and sale of products containing freon and CFCs
What was the ARPANET and what was its aim?
● Advanced Research Projects Agency Network linked in 1969
● Its aim was to decentralize the Defense Department's computer system and make it less vulnerable to attack by the Soviet Union
● First step in the creation of the internet
What was the Canadarm?
● The first was designed and built by Spar Aerospace in 1981
● Remote arm that is attached to NASA's space shuttles
● Allows crews to launch satellites into precise positions in orbit, and to recapture satellites to return to Earth for servicing
What treaty was signed to reduce the number of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1) in 1972
What happened in 1979 that raised the tension after the SALT 1?
● In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and sent new medium-range missiles to Eastern Europe
● In response, NATO announced that it was deploying new, more advanced missiles in Europe as well
What did many Western nations do in protest against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan?
They boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow
What did the USSR do in September 1983 and what did the US do to retaliate the USSR?
● In September 1983, Soviet jets shot down a Korean passenger jet that had strayed into Soviet airspace
● In October 1983, US forces invaded Caribbean nation of Grenada and deposed a pro-Soviet government
● The US carried on a covert (secret) war against the left-wing Sandinista regime in Nicaragua
What did Prime Minister Trudeau do to ease the tension between the two superpowers?
● He appealed to the US and the USSR to show more restraint
● He made a special tour of a number of world capitals to enlist other political leaders in his campaign to mediate between the superpowers
What was Mulroney's approach to international relations?
● Mulroney worked to forge closer links with the US
- He developed a close personal relationship with US President Ronald Reagan, with whom he shared a similar conservative philosophy
What plan was unveiled by the US government in 1985?
The Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI), nicknamed "Star Wars" that would create a defence shield, part of which would orbit the Earth
What were Canadians' reactions towards Star Wars and nuclear weapons?
● Across Canada, anti-nuclear groups protested Canada's possible involvement
- They believed that Star Wars would provoke other nations to develop similar weapons
● Mulroney finally said no to Canada's official participation
● However, the door was open for private Canadian companies to bid on Star Wars contacts if they wished
What did the Trudeau government form to block any foreign investment?
The Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) in 1973
What did Mulroney replace FIRA with?
● Investment Canada, a body that would encourage suitable foreign investment
● In 1987, Mulroney started negotiations that led Canada into the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in 1989
- Removed tariffs on goods crossing the border and opened the US to Canadian investment
● In 1992, Mulroney government expanded the free trade zone by signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which included free trade with Mexico
Why did people support free trade?
● People argued that by eliminating tariffs, Canada would attract more US investment--which would help Canadian industry grow and benefit the whole economy
● It would also provide access to the larger US market, which would increase Canada's productivity and growth
● With larger production runs, Canadian products would be sold at lower prices to compete effectively with imports
● It would also attract US firms to Canada to take advantage of our natural resources, skilled workers, and well-planned transportation system
Why didn't people support free trade?
● They argued that once protective tariffs were removed, those US branch plants operating in Canada to avoid paying tariffs would simply return tot he US, thus eliminating job opportunities in Canada
- Free trade would increase unemployment and de-industrialize Canada
● Canadian businesses would be unable to compete against giant US companies, which were able to flood the Canadian market with cheap goods and services
● Free trade threatened Canada's independence--that economic union would lead to pressure for political union
What was the major fear of NAFTA's opponents?
Companies operating in Canada would move to Mexico to take advantage of the low wages and less strict anti-pollution laws
What did the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev realize?
What action did he take?
● He realized that the Soviet Union could no longer afford its costly arms race with the United States.
● He proposed massive cuts in the arsenal of both superpowers
● He began a series of sweeping economic/social/political reforms to help the communist countries run more efficiently
● He loosened censorship and allowed for greater freedom of speech
What happened to other European countries as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev's new policies (perestroika/glasnost)?
● People of East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Romania demanded similar reforms in their countries.
● The Berlin Wall was demolished in November 1989.
● Member states of the Soviet Union became independent countries, causing the Soviet Union to fall apart. The Cold War in Europe was over.
- With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the great division between East and West had gone.
What happened to China as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev's new policies (perestroika/glasnost)?
● Communist China allowed capitalism to flourish in many area of the economy, but this caused many Chinese to demand political reform, as well.
- Red Army soldiers and tanks attacked students who were involved in the democracy movement, resulting in hundreds to thousands of deaths.
When/where did the Chinese students get attacked for participating in a democracy movement?
● When: June 1989
● Where: Tiananmen Square
Although many believed that the end of the Cold War would bring world peace, this was not the case.
● There were many regional conflicts/ethnic rivalries.
- ie. the Persian Gulf, the former Yugoslavia, and Africa
What caused the Gulf War?
In August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil-rich country of Kuwait
What was the UN response towards Iraq's invasion of Kuwait?
● The UN immediately demanded that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait after the invasion, and threatened economic sanctions if it refused
● The UN lead a multinational force against Iraq after the US began to demand that military force need to be used
- The Americans were joined by a coalition forces from twenty-seven other countries
● In January 1991, the coalition forces began bombing targets from air and sea
How did Canada participate in the Gulf War?
● Canada is a part of the coalition force
● Canada participated with a squadron of CF-18 fighter bombers, units of the Canadian Army, and ships from the Canadian Navy patrolling the Persian Gulf
Who proclaimed a "new world order" and what is it?
● After victory in the Gulf War, US President George Bush proclaimed a "new world order"
● He stated that the UN would take a much more active role as a global police force
● The UN would undertake this role under the guidance of the US--only superpower remaining after the collapse of the USSR
What was the UN's role in the past before the Gulf War and how is it changing?
● In the past, the UN had been dedicated to peacekeeping--negotiating settlements and keeping warring factions apart
● Now the UN would have more of a peacemaking role--it would, where necessary, use force to punish aggression
- Military action would preserve long-term peace and security
What is Operation Restore Hope?
● It was launched by the UN in 1992 in Somalia, an east African nation
● It had been ravaged by years of civil war and starvation
● it was directed by the US
How did Canada participate in Operation Restore Hope?
Canadian forces joined those from other countries in distributing food and other essential supplies to the desperate local population in Somalia
What crisis did Operation Restore Hope cause in Canada?
● One night, members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment arrested a Somali teenager found wandering in the Canadian base camp
- During the night, the teen was tortured and beaten to death
● It later became clear that there had been a high-level attempt to cover up the incident
● In 1995, the Airborne Regiment was disbanded--reputation of Canada's armed forces was damaged
Why did the ethnic war break out in Yugoslavia?
In 1991, Slobodan Milosevic, leader of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, began to talk about establishing a greater Serbia by uniting all the Serbian population from surrounding states into one country
Why were the UN missions sent in to Yugoslavia?
● By 1992, the war had spread to the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina
● UN peacekeeping missions were sent in to try to keep the sides from fighting
- They were unable to keep peace
What was NATO's response towards wars in Yugoslavia?
● In 1995, NATO forces launched a series of airstrikes against the mainly Serbian forces of the Yugoslav army, which was perceived as the aggressor
- The warring factions eventually agreed to a ceasefire, and US troops were sent to bolster the UN peacekeeping forces on the ground
● NATO launched its first-ever military operation against an independent country--began bombing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
- To force the Yugoslav president, Milosevic, to stop Serbs from persecuting, murdering and displacing Albanians in Kosovo
Why did some Canadian support NATO's bombings in Yugoslavia?
They insisted that NATO was obligated to act to prevent the Serbian-Albanian conflict from spreading to neighbouring countries
Why did some Canadians oppose NATO's bombings in Yugoslavia?
● They argued that NATO should never have interfered in the domestic affairs of a sovereign nation, and that its involvement had escalated the conflict
● They thought the UN should have pursued peace through its own channels
What was happening in Rwanda after the Cold War ended?
● This small nation was torn apart by ethnic rivalries
● France and Belgium, the former colonial forces in the area, sent troops to try to control the slaughter
What role did Canada play in Rwanda?
● A small detachment of UN peacekeepers was sent under the command of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire
● Dallaire sent a series of urgent appeals to UN headquarters when he realized the extent of the killings
● He outlined an ambitious military plan to halt the killing
- The plan needs two things, speed and the support of the US
● The UN and US refused to help--feared a defeat similar to that in Somalia
How did Canada help policing Haiti?
● Canadian peacekeepers assumed a major role in policing Haiti as it recovered from a brutal dictatorship
● RCMP officers helped to train a new Haitian police force in the newly democratic society
What was the "Team Canada" and who organized it?
● The Liberal Prime Minister Jean Chretien organized "Team Canada"
● It's a trade mission to Asia and Latin America to secure deals for Canadian investment and exports
- The Canadian government has signed free trade agreements with Chile and Israel
- Canada also joined APEC
What is APEC and what does it do?
● The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Group
● It promotes freer trade among Pacific countries
What is the definition of globalization?
A vast network of business, communications, and cultural links among countries
What caused globalization?
● Rapid changes in communications technology
- Internet made it possible to do business online in almost any part of the globe
● The fall of communism
What are the pros of globalization?
● Goods could be easily shipped around the world
● Living standards for everyone, rich and poor, will raise
- Large corporations will invest in less industrialized countries, creating jobs for many more people and raising standards of living