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Flashcards in Ch 8 Deck (81):


● Front de libération du Québec who were terrorist that bomb sites that was relevant to the government
● Terrorist group that fought in the name of le Québec libre- a "free" Québec
● Kidnapped James Cross, a British diplomat, on October 5, 1970, marking the start of the October Crisis
● Membership in the FLQ became a crime during the October Crisis


Quiet Revolution

● Revolution in Quebec that modernized them
● Raised wages
● Removed restrictions on trade unionism
● Influence of Roman Catholic Church declined
● Took control of social services & educational systems


October Crisis

● October 1970
● Members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross, a British diplomat on October 5
● FLQ kidnapped Quebec labour minister Pierre Laporte on October 10
● War Measures Act was imposed
● On October 16, federal troops were sent in to patrol the streets of Ottawa and Montreal
● Pierre Laporte was found dead
● The kidnappers of James Cross were permitted safe passage to Cuba in return for Cross’s release
● This was the first time that the War Measures Act was enacted during a time of peace.


Official Languages Act

● Pierre Trudeau passed act making Canada a billingual country.
● Federal gov. had to provide services in both languages now


Parti Quebecois

● Founder Réne Lévesque left Liberal party to make Parti Quebecois
● Believed Quebec and Canda would be better off divorcing than staying in a marriage of 2 cultures that to many Quebeckers was no longer workable


Rene Levesque

● Founder of Parti Quebecois



● Proposal by Quebec nationalists that Quebec should have political independence yet still retain close economic ties and association with Canada


Amending formula

● Process in which changes can be leagally made to the constitution


Notwithstanding clause

● Allows government to pass a law even if it violates a specific freedom or right guranteed in charter


Meech Lake Accord

● 1987
● Offered to recognize Quebec as a distinct society
- Critics (Pierre Trudeau) argued that this would create "two solitudes" in Canada and isolate the Francophones
● All provinces would have the power to veto constitutional change
● Rejected in June 1990
- Aboriginal peoples pointed out that they had a distinct society that needed to be recognized and protected


Charlottetown Accord

● 1992
● Proposed reforming the Senate
● Offered to recognize Quebec as a distinct society
● Supported Aboriginal self-government
● Rejected in a national referendum
- Greatest opposition from BC--giving Quebec too much power
- Voters in Quebec believed that it didn't give them enough power and they feared Aboriginal self-government



● Policy of fostering expression of the cultures of many ethnic groups that make up a country's population


Clarity Bill

● A controversial bill that set down in law Ottawa's insistence on a clear question in any future referendum and a substancial "yes" majority before Quebecs exit from the confederation will be negotiated
● Enacted after the narrow margin of victory in the 1995 referendum



● A Quebec town that decided to expand a golf course into land that Mohawks at the nearby Kanesatake reserve considered sacred.
● Mohawk decided to blockade the land to stop the construction
- Provincial Police was called in to remove the blockade
● On July 11, gunfire broke out and an officer was killed
● As the tense stand-off continued, Quebec Premier called in the Canadian Forces for help
● Negotiations was reached
- The disputed land was purchased by the federal government and given to Kanesatake


Land Claims

● Claims to lands that Aboriginals considerd to be theirs
● There are 2 types of aboriginal claims commonly referred to as "land claims"
○ Specific Claims
○ Comprehensive Claims


Specific Claims

● Arose in areas where treaties between Aboriginal peoples and the federal government have been signed, but their terms have not been kept
● First Nations claim to land based on belief that gov. did not fulfill its obligations under a treaty or other agreements related to money, land or other assets


Comprehensive Claims

● Arose in ares where no treaties had been signed
● Assertion of the right of Aboriginal nations to large tracts of land because their ancestors were the original inhabitants


What was Maurice Duplesis position on Qubec nationalism?

● He was a strong Quebec nationalist
● He devoted to the idea of Quebec as a distinctive society, a "nation" rather than just another Canadian province
- He brought in a new flag (fleur-de-lis)
● He fiercely opposed the growing powers of the federal government


What was the main defender of Quebec culture under Duplessis and why?

● The Roman Catholic Church
● Priests urged people in Quebec to turn their backs on the materialism and praised the old Quebec traditions of farm, faith, and family


What was a consequence of the Church controlling education?

● Religion played a role in every part of the curriculum
● Qubec produced many priests, lawyers, and politicians, but few scientists, engineers, or business people


What did Duplessis promise to encourage foreign investment?

● Cheap labour, since union activity was either discouraged or banned
● Low taxes


What did Lesage do once he came to power?

● came into power after Duplessis, Stamp out corruption
- Government jobs and contracts were now awarded according to merit
● Wages and pensions were raised, and restrictions on trade unionism were removed
● Tool control of social services and the education system


What did Lesage mean with the motto "maitres chez nous"?

● Masters in our own house
● The aim would be to strengthen Quebec's control of its own economy
● THe government nationalized several hydro companies and turned htem into a lare, provincially owned power monopoly, Hydro-Qubeec


What does FLQ stand for?

Front de libération du Québec


What methods did the FLQ use to attack?

● They used firebombs and explosives to attack symbols of English-Canadian power
● In the early 1960s, Royal Mail boxes and downtown office towers belonging to Canadian National Railways were attacked


What did Levesque believe that will serve Quebec and Canada better?

Levesque believed that Quebec and Canada would do better to divorce peacefully than to continue a marriage of two cultures that was no longer workable


When did Lester Pearson become Prime Minister

in the midst of the quiet revolution


Who were the "three wise men"

Piere trudeau, Gerard Pelletier and Jean Marchand


What was Lester Pearson's approach to the Quiet Revolution?

● He was convinced that Canada would face a grave crisis unless the French were made to feel more at home in Canada
● He appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism to investigate some solutions.
● He responded to a long-standing complaint in Quebec that Canada's symbols were too British.
○ Suggested that Canada should haev a new flag to replace those in use- the British Union Jack and the Red Ensign, which had the Union Jack in the upper corner.


What did the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism recommend?

● The "Bi and Bi Commission" recommended that Canada should become officially bilingual.


How successful was Pearson's idea of changing the flag (in uniting the French and English Canadians together)?

● Unsuccessful
● The new flag increased tensions between French and English Canada.
● Many Canadians opposed any new flag beacuse they felt that Pearson was pandering to Quebec.
● An emotional debate split the country.
● Finally, after hundreds of suggestions from across Canada, the red-and-white maple leaf design was chosen.
● In the end, Quebec was upset by the bitter debate and primarily fly the fleur-de-lis flag.


When was Canada's new flag raised for the first time on Parliament Hill?

On February 15, 1965


What did Pierre Trudeau do in response to the recommendations of the Bi and Bi Commission?

● He acted on their advice to make Canada officially bilingual
● Passed the Official Languages Act, making Canada an officially bilingual country
○ All federal government agencie across the country were now required to provide services in both languages.


How did Canadians react to the Official Languages Act?

● Mixed reviews
● Many embraced the idea of bilingualism with enthusiasm and enrolled their children in French immersion classes.
● Some, Western Canadians especially, felt that the federal government was forcing French on them.
○ They also believed that Ottawa was focusing all its attention on Quebec, while the West and its concerns were largely ignored.
● Francophones in Quebec were unimpressed.
○ They felt that Trudeau was not doing enough.
○ They wanted "special status" for Quebec in Confederation.
○ Trudeau insisted that Quebec was a province, just like any of the others.


What did Trudeau say when he was asked about how far he would go to defeat the FLQ

"Just watch me" after asking parliament to impose War Measure Act


Timeline of the October Crisis

Oct 5, 1970
● British High Commissioner James Cross is kidnapped by the FLQ.
● FLQ demands release of FLQ "PRISONERS"
○ "PRISONERS" = FLQ members who were serving prison sentences for previous criminal acts.
Oct 10, 1970
● Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte is kidnapped
Oct 13, 1970
● Trudeau says "Just watch me" when asked how just far he would go to defeat the FLQ.
Oct 16, 1970
● War Measures Act imposed.
○ Federal troops sent in to protect Ottawa, Quebec, and Montreal
○ Within 48 hours, over 250 people arrested (labour leaders, entertainers, writers).
○ By the end of the year, 468 had been arrested.
Oct 17, 1970
● Laporte's body is found.
Dec 3, 1970
● James Cross is found and freed by the police.
● Police negotiate with the responsible kidnappers
○ In return for James Cross' release, the kidnappers were granted safe passage to Cuba.


Who won the vote in 1976 in Quebec? What did this party want to accomplish?

● Parti Quebecois won the 1976 election
● The top priority of the new government was strengthening the status of the French language.
○ Passed "Bill 101"
● One of Rene Levesques's goals was to seperate Quebec from Canada
○ During the campaign, Levesque has reassured Quebeckers that a vote for the PQ would not automatically mean separation.
○ Levesque stood by his word and held a province-wide referendum in 1980.


What was Bill 101?

● Charter of the French Language
● Law that made French the only offiical language of the province
○ Quebec government employees had to work in French
○ Commercial outdoor signs would have to be in French only
○ Children of immigratns would be required to attend French rather than English schools.


How did Canadians react to Bill 101?

● Francophone Quebeckers welcomed the language law
○ Many felt their culture and language were endangered
○ The birth rate in Quebec had fallen to its lowest level in history
○ Immigration rates had increased, but most new immigrants preferred to educate their children in English
● Non-Francophone Quebeckers thought that Bill 101 was a symbol of oppression
● The rest of Canada, as well, felt that the PQ's policies were too extreme


What did Levesque do in 1980?

● Levesque government called a referendum to determine Quebec's political future
○ Levesque asked Quebeckers to vote "yes" to giving his government a mandate to negotiate a new agreement with Canada baseed on sovereignty-association.
○ He proposed that Quebec become politically independent, yet maintain a close economic association with Canada.


How did Prime Minister Trudeau react to the 1980 Referndum?

● He made impassioned speeches urging the people of Quebec to remain part of a strong, united, and forward-looking Canada
● Trudeau promised to negotiate a new Constitution if the "no" side won
○ This promise was popular among Quebeckers
○ They wanted a Constitution that recognized Quebec as an equal partner of the Confederation, and as a distinct society within Canada.
○ This promise helped to swing many Quebec votes to the "no" camp


What were the results of the 1980 referendum?

● 40% of Quebeckers voted "yes" to sovereignty-association
● 60% voted "no"
● Rene Levesque accepted defeat, but was visibly upset.
○ He promised his followers that their dream of a sovereign Quebec would triumph one day


What was the BNA Act?

● Canada's Constitution since 1867, unti 1982
● An act that set out the powers of the federal and provincial governments
○ Also guaranteed the language and education rights of Quebec's French-speaking majority.
● Falls under the British jurisdiction-- no changes could be made without the British Parliament's approval.


What changes did Trudeau want to make to the Constitution/BNA Act? Whose approval did Trudeau need in order to make these changes?

● Trudeau wanted to patriate the Constitution
○ Patriate: To transfer legislation to an authority of an autonomous country from its previous mother country.
○ This would allow the Canadian government to have the authority to make changes
● Trudeau wanted to include a Charter of Rights and Freedoms
○ A clear statement of basic rights to which all Canadians were entitled.
● Before he could make any changes, Trudeau needed to have the approval of the provinces.


Why were most of the provincial premiers opposed to the Charter?

● English-speaking premiers felt that the Charter would make the courts more powerful than their legislature
● In quebec, Levesque feared that the Charter could be used to override his language laws or any other legislation that might be passed to protect Quebec's distinct society


What two things did the kitchen compromise establish?

● Amending formula
● Notwithstanding Clause


What was the first step to changing the Constitution?

Trudeau needed to come up with an amending formula.


What is the amending formula?

● A process in changing the constitution
● 7/10 provinces with 50% of Canada's population


What happened during the Kitchen Compromise?

● An agreement was worked out by the federal Justice Minister Jean Chretien and the justice ministers from Saskatchewan and Ontario
● 9/10 premiers were asked to approve the deal
● Quebec premier was not included because he stayed in another hotel
- Quebecers felt betrayed


How was the constitution debate renewed?

● John Turner, Trudeau's replacement called an election in 1984
● Brain Mulroney returned to the issue of the Constitution and promised to repair the damage in order to gain support from Quebec


Who was the new Constitution Act signed into law by?

Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Trudeau signed it into law, outisde the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa.


What was the nonwithstanding clause? Why was it added to the Charter?

● An escape clause
○ Allowed the federal government or any of the provinces to opt out of some of the clauses in the Charter.
○ A provincial law that was contrary to a specific Charter guarantee could be passed, despite anything the Charter contains.
● Premiers agreed to accept the Charter if an escape clause were added.


What did the Reform Party form in response to?

● Ottawa awarded a government contract to repair air force jets to the company in Montreal, even though the Winnipeg company had a better proposal
- Westerners were convinced that the contract went to Montreal just to buy Comservative votes in Quebec


What amendments did the Meech Lake Accord suggest?

● Recognize Quebec as a distinct society
● Giving more power to the other provinces (the power to veto constitutional change)


What did the critics say about the Meech Lake Accord?

● The designation of Quebec as a distinct society would create "two solitudes" in Canada
- Isolate the Francophones of Quebec
● Aboriginal peoples pointed out that they had a distinct society that needed to be recognized and protected as well


What happened to the Meech Lake Accord?

It disintegrated in June 1990
- The failure was seen as a rejection of Quebec itself, even a humiliation


What did the Bloc Quebecois form in response to?

The rejection of the Meech Lake Accord


What were "two solitudes"?

isolate the Francophones of quebec and make them less rather than more of a part of Confederation. Quebeckers saw this as a way of protecting French culture and language


Why was the Block Qeubecois formed?

Manitoba and Newfoundland withheld their support and the Meech Lake Accord was dismissed and quebec felt humiliated. As a result, more people wanted seperation and a member from Mulroney's cabinet resigned in protest and formed this party to support seperation


What did Mulroney promise during his election campaign in 1984?

● He promised to repair the damage of 1982 by obtaining Quebec's consent to the Constitution "with honour and enthusiasm."
○ He wanted to build up support from separatist in Quebec


What did Newfoundland and Alberta want during the Constitution debate?

● They wanted more control of their own resources
○ Newfoundland - Fisheries
○ Alberta - Oil industries


What was the "Citizen's Forum?

● A committee that travelled across the nation to hear the views of Canadians on the future of the Constitution
● Appointed by Mulroney's government


What did the Charlottetown Accord suggest?

● Recognize Quebec as a distinct society
● Reform the Senate
- Making it an elected body
● Support Aboriginal self-government


What happened to the Charlottetown Accord?

● It was put to a national referendum in October 1992
- It was rejected
● Greatest opposition was in BC
- Felt that the accord gave Quebec too much power
● Voters in Quebec believed that the Charlottetown Accord did not give htem enough power b/c most of the Senate seats had been given up to the West
- Feared Aboriginal self-government since it would affect a large portion of northern Quebec


What happened in the 1995 referendum?

premier Jaques Parizeau called a provincial referendum on full soveriengty to seperate from canada and as a result, 50.6 percent voted no and 49.4 voted yes


What was the Clarity Bill/Act?

● Prime Minister Chretien proposed the clarity bill in response to the narrow margin of victory in the 1995 referendum
● It set down in law, for the first time, Ottawa's insistence on a clear question in any future referendum and a substantial "yes" majority before Quebec's exit from Confederation would be negotiated.


How did the immigration policy change over the years?

●From the end of WWI - 1960s, immigration policy was somewhat restrictive
○ Immigrants of British & European origin (esp. northern Europeans) were preferred because it was believed that they would adapt to Canadian life the most easily.
○ While immigrants of other origins did arrive, their numbers were limited by the government.
● By 1960s, Canadians were more open minded
● 1962 - New regulations removed most immigration limits on Asians, Africans, etc.
● 1967 - New legislation made Canada's immigration policy officially "colour-blind"
○ Pearson introduced a points-based immigration system-- people were chosen based on education and employability.
○ National/Racial origins were no longer factors
● 1971 - Prime Minister Trudeau introduced an official policy of multiculturalism
● 1976 - Immigration of family members with relatives already in Canada was allowed


What was the policy of multiculturalism?

● Encouraged the country's different ethnic groups to express their cultures
● Multicultural activities were organized across the country
○ Heritage language classes were provided to help children learn the language of their parents
○ Festivals were held for cultural communities to share their music, dancers, foods, games, arts, crafts, and stories.
○ These programs were intended to prevent racism by promoting respect for all cultures.


What did Prime Minister Trudeau claim the policy of multiculturalism would do?

● It would support and encourage various cultures and ethnic groups that give structure and vitality to Canadian society.
● Canadians would be encouraged to share their cultural expressions and values with other Canadians, contributing to a richer life for everyone.


What did the federal government do to recognize the growth of Canada's multicultural communities?

They established the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship in 1988


What did the Department of Multiculturalism do?

They continued to promote multiculturalism in all araes of government policy.


What type of land claims was common in BC and why?

● Comprehensive land claims
● Treaties were not signed except in a few areas


What did the Nisga'a do ?

● They asserted their land rights
- Although the Indian Act made it illegal for them to raise funds for land claims


What did the Supreme Court of Canada rule in 1993 to the Nisga'a case?

● It acknowledged that the concept of Aboriginal title did indeed exist


What were the Nisga'a offered?

● A settlement that entitled them to 8% of their orignal claimed land, ownership of the forests, and partial profits from salmon fisheries and hydro development
● Right to develop their own municipal government and policing
● $190 million over 15 years in compensation for lost land
● Nisga'a agreed to become taxpayers


What was the Supreme Court's definision of "Aboriginal title"?

● Aboriginal groups could claim ownership of land if they can prove that they occupied the land before the Canadian government claimed sovereignty, and that they occupied it continuously and exclusively


What did hte opponents of Aboriginal titles argue?

● Some businesses feared future court cases over ownership of the land
- They began to halt their investments
- Jobs were lost in BC
● There would be further expensive disputes over land and self-government
● They demanded a referendum on the deal
- The government refused, arguing that the irghts of a minority can never be fairly decided by a vote of the majority


What are the two types of land claims?

● Specific claims
● Comprehensive claims


What was Bill C-31?

● It was passed in 1985
● It gave Aboriginal band councils the power to decide who had the right to live on Aboriginal reserves
- Previous decisions of this sort had been made by the Department of Indian Affairs


What was the Assembly of First Nations?

● It was formed by Canadian Aboriginal peopples in 1980
● It represents them in their dealins with the federal government
● It pressured the inclusion of Aboriginal rights in the Charter of RIghts and Freedoms


Why did Aboriginal peoples want the right to self-govern?

● The right to maange resources and gain conrol of their education, culture, and justice systems
● Allow them to tackle social and health concerns in their communities