Flashcards in Ch 5 Deck (176):
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
●The BCATP is a plan in which British instructors train pilots/other flight personnel from all over the British Commonwealth in Canada.
●In December 1939, Canada agreed to host/administer this training plan.
●Canada was an ideal training place because of its open skies, climate, and distance from enemy aircraft
○Air Fields were built on the Prairies and near small towns/villages.
●Old aircraft were refitted and returned to service.
●A major contribution to the war effort
●Trained over 130 000 pilots, navigators, flight engineers, and ground staff.
●Total cost was over $2.2 billion
○Canada paid over 70%.
a policy in which Canadians were willing to do whatever it took to defeat the enemy
● Minister of Munitions and Supplies
● Given extraordinary authority to do whatever it took to gear up the economy to meet wartime demands
● Businesses and industries owned by the Canadian government
● If the private sector was unable to produce what Howe wanted, he created crown corporations to do the job
Britain, France, Commonwealth countries including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Later the US and USSR also joined
Germany, Italy (joined in 1939), Japan (joined in 1940)
● Lightening war
● German panzers (tanks) would crash through enemy lines, driving forward as far as they could
● At the same time, war planes would roar through the skies, constantly bombing the enemy below
● German soldiers would also parachute into enemy territory, destroying vital communication and transportation links
● First used in Denmark and Norway in April 1940
● October 1939 - Spring 1940
● A period of no war
● German tanks
● Vital in the blitzkrieg in which the panzers crash through enemy lines, driving forward as far as they could
German armed forces
●It took Germany just hours to conquer Denmark and two months to subdue Norway.
●On May 10, 1940, German Wehrmacht began its invasion of the Netherlands.
○Wehrmacht - armed forces
●The German forces moved quickly through Belgium, and finally into France
●German panzer reached the English Channel within a few days of arriving in France
●Allies become trapped at Dunkirk
●British navy along with all other usable ships, attempt to rescue forces on May 26
○hundreds of fishing boats, pleasure crafts, and ferries joined naval and merchant ships as they headed across the Channel for the beaches of Dunkirk.
○German Luftwaffe (air force) bomb Dunkirk, making escape more difficult, but did not stop evacuation
○340 000 rescued
○had to leave all equipment behind
●June 22, 1940 ~ France surrendered
● German air force
● Vital in the blitzkrieg in which the Luftwaffe assist the panzers with constant bombing
Operation Sea Lion
● Invasion of Britain
● Germany planned to destroy Britain's air power first
● It was unsuccessful
Battle of Britain
●Hitler plans “Operation Sea Lion”
○invasion of Britain
○needed to destroy British Air Force
●July 10, 1940 ~ beginning of bombing campaign
○aimed at harbours and shipping facilities in southern England
●started attacking airfields in August
●attacked civilians in September
○raids became known as “the Blitz”
●British overcame invasion due to radar
○also had good defensive fighter planes: Spitfires and Hurricanes
○had support of Allies from Commonwealth
●Hitler gives up Operation Sea Lion in May 1941
● In September, 1940, the German started to bomb civilians in the Battle of Britain for fifty-five consecutive nights
● These raids were known as "the Blitz"
●radio detection and ranging
●electronic system that uses radio waves to detect objects beyond the range of vision
●provides information about the distance, position, size, shape, direction, and speed of an object.
●used to detect approaching aircraft and naval vessels.
● Defensive fighter planes helped the Allies win the Battle of Britain
● Limited in number
● Defensive fighter planes helped the Allies win the Battle of Britain
● Limited in number
● German code name of the invasion of the USSR
● Germany and the Soviet Union had agreed in 1939 not to invade each other, but Hitler needed to conquer the USSR in order to fulfil his long-term plans of a German Empire.
● Hitler did not plan to invade the USSR until later in the war, but got suspicious of Joseph Stalin's motives when the Soviet Union took over part of the Balkans in 1940.
● Germany invaded USSR on June 22, 1941
● Soviets were unprepared at first, and Germans were able to reach the outskirts of Moscow and Leningrad (now: St. Petersberg) by autumn
● Germans were ill-equipped for the long, cold Soviet winters and lost their advantage over the Soviets
● in 1942, Germany launched another offensive in the USSR
○ They wanted to capture the rich oil fields in the south
● German troops got as far as Stalingrad but were stopped by the winter, again.
● German army surrendered in early 1943 after suffering over 300,000 casualties
● Soviet army took the offensive and retook much of the territory that they lost
● by early 1944, the Soviets were advancing into Eastern Europe, towards Germany.
● U.S. naval base located here
● On December 7, 1941, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, destroying half the fleet.
○ USA declares war on Japan the next day
The Dieppe Raid
● A trial run for the Allies to test out new techniques/equipment
● Canadians were anxious to participate in the war
○ The Second Canadian Division was chosen to be the main force of attack during this experimental raid on the French port of Dieppe, which was under German occupation.
● The plan was to have four pre-dawn attacks along the coast, followed by one main attack on the town of Dieppe half an hour later. Allied troops were to be covered by air force bombers, and tanks were to be landed at the town.
● The raid did not go as planned.
○ On August 19, 1942, one of the Allied ships met a German convoy. They engaged in a sea battle, which alerted the German troops on the shore.
○ Canadians were supposed to disembark before dawn, but the ships were delayed, so by the time they arrived, it was early daylight. The German soldiers could easily see them and machine-gun them.
○ Communication was poor between ships and troops. Commanders sent more reinforcements ashore, believing that the first wave of soldiers had reached the town. Instead, these troops got trapped on the beaches and were easy targets for the Germans.
○ Allied tanks could not get enough traction on the pebbled beach, leaving many of them immobile.
● The raid was a failure.
○ 907 Canadians were killed during the 9-hour battle which was more than any other day of war.
○ 586 Canadians were wounded
○ 1874 Canadians were taken prisoner
●Opinion is divided on whether Dieppe was a valuable learning experience or a complete disaster
○Some believe that the Allies learned from their mistakes and this experience led them to launch a successful invasion later in the war.
○Others believe that the war was badly planned, and taught the Germans more than the Allies.
Battle of the Atlantic
● Lasted from September 3, 1939 – May 7, 1945
● Was in full force by 1941; Canadian contribution was much needed.
● "Wolf packs" of German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic and sunk Allied merchant ships bound for England
○ Britain was almost completely dependant on the USA and Canada for food and military supplies
○ Germany was trying to starve Britain by cutting off vital shipping routes to the island.
● Allies sailed in convoys: warships escorted vessels carrying vital supplies, protecting them.
○ This did not stop the attacks from the Germans, who continued to sink millions of tonnes of cargo
● Canada started building corvettes
● The Germans continued strong until the winter of 1942-1943
● May 1942, Britain cracked German naval code
● December 1942, Britain cracked a second German code
○ At this time, more ships were being built than destroyed
● 1943, Germany's U-boat fleet suffered serious losses, and more Allied convoys were reaching their destination
● Small warships that Canada built to escort the convoys across the Atlantic Ocean
● Small, quick, manoeuvred well, but unsteady
● Helped by Liberator bombers
● Used in the Battle of the Atlantic
●United States developed it in the Manhattan Project
●One sphere about the size of a baseball was equal in power to over 20,000t of TnT.
●one single atomic bomb could cripple an entire medium-sized city
●permanently changed the nature of warfare
●used on Japan twice on the 6th and 9th of August 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.
V 2 rocket
●had a range of 350km
●used with deadly accuracy against London near the end of the war
○had no impact on the outcome of the war
●Wernher von Braun was the designer
○moved to US after the war
○designed Gemini and Apollo rockets that eventually led to the US moon landing in 1969
●“Enigma” was a German coding machine
●converted radio messages into code so that they could not be understood by the enemy.
●this message spurred the development of an early computer that could decode German signals.
● British Prime Minister
● Thought that the best way for the Allies to recapture Europe was through the 'soft underbelly' of Europe
○ 'soft underbelly' = Italy and Sicily
○ The invasion ended up lasting almost 2 years, costing thousands of lives.
● Royal Canadian Navy
● Grew significantly during the war
- By 1945, it had 400 vessels and over 100,000 sailors: 99,688 men and 6500 women
● Contributed in the Battle of Atlantic to escort the supply ships; is credited with having provided about half the escorts across the Atlantic
● Royal Canadian Air Force
● Grew quickly after the war began
○ Altogether 250,000 Canadians joined the RCAF during the war years.
○ At one point, there were 48 Canadian squadrons posted overseas.
● Played a variety of important roles
○ Participated in bombing raids in Britain, North Africa, italy, Northwest Europe, and Southeast Asia.
○ Participated in one of the most controversial missions of the war: night bombings over Germany.
● June 6, 1944
● Allies launched "Operation Overlord" on this day
○ A full-scale invasion of Europe; biggest Allied invasion of the war
● Planned and rehearsed to the smallest detail
○ Allies learned from the failure at Dieppe
● Five landing points along an 80km stretch of beach in Normandy, northern France
○ Code-named: Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha, Utah
● June 6, 1944: over 30,000 Canadian soldiers arrived at 'Juno' Beach in the morning
○ First wave of attacks; difficult task because they had to get past concrete barriers erected by the Germans, through barbed wire, and other obstacles, in order to work their way inland.
● Allied troops had two advantages
○ Had massive air/naval support - ability to land more than a million troops within two or three weeks of the initial landing
○ The details of the attack remained a secret from the Germans - Germans anticipated an attack, but the weather had been stormy leading up to the invasion. The Germans believed that the Allies would not attempt a landing in bad weather conditions.
● Casualties were high on June 6, 1944, despite the Allies' careful planning and advantages
○ 359 Canadians died and 715 were wounded
● Launched on D-Day, June 6, 1944
● A full-scale invasion of Europe; biggest Allied invasion of the war.
● Allies had to fight for weeks to work their way inland
○ They began an 11 month advance through France and Belgium, towards Germany
○ Campaign was tiring and dangerous, but the Allies were (sometimes) welcomed as the liberators of Europe
● March 1945, Allied forces attacked Germany
○ Canadian forces had a separate task: the liberation of the Netherlands
● May 4, 1945, German troops in the Netherlands surrendered
● May 7, 1945, Germany surrenders the war
● January 30, 1933 – May 8, 1945
● a genocide in which Jews, Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, and other people that Hitler and the Nazis considered inferior were murdered
○ more than 6 million were killed by 1945
● The anti-Semitic and racist views of Hitler and the Nazi government were well known in the 1930s
● By 1941, the Nazi government adopted the "Final Solution"
○ A plan to get rid of inferior/undesirable people from their society
○ Death camps were built in many places and German scientists experimented with the most efficient ways of mass murdering people.
● Jews from all over Europe were shipped to the death camps
○ the weak, old and young were sent to the gas chambers immediately
○ the strong and healthy were slave driven until they became weakened due to the harsh conditions, at which point they were sent to the gas chambers.
● The grisly and horrifying plan to rid Nazi society of all people they considered undesirable
● Adopted in 1941 by the Nazi government
● Death camps were built in a number of places, including Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald in Germany and Auschwitz and Treblinka in Poland
● German scientists experimented with the most efficient ways of killing large numbers of people
- Jews from all over Europe were shipped to the death camps
- On arrival, they were stripped of their clothes and valuables, their heads were shaved, and families were separated
- The weak, the old, and the young were sent immediately to the "showers", which spurted deadly Zyklon-B gas
- The strong and healthy were put to work -- their turn at the "showers" came when overwork, starvation, and disease had weakened them
● By 1945, the Germans had murdered more than six million Jews, Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, and other other people they considered inferior
Zyklon B Gas
● Deadly poison gas that is used to kill people in the "showers"
● Used in death camps by Nazi Germany
● The first of the two Japanese cities to be hit by America's atomic bomb during WWII
● On August 6, 1945, a U.S. bomber, nicknamed Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
○ 70,000 residents were killed and another 130,000 were wounded, severely burned by radiation or injured by collapsing buildings.
● The second the two Japanese cities to be hit by America's atomic bomb during WWII
● On August 9, 1945, three days after the bombing in Hiroshima, an atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
○ 40,000 residents were killed.
○ Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945
● The U.S. bomber that dropped the atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing 70,000 residents and injuring 130,000 more.
● It was nicknamed after the pilot's mother.
National Resources Mobilization Act
● Many Canadians, including the opposition Conservative Party, demanded more government action in the war after seeing the speed with which the Germans occupied Europe in 1940
● King's government brought in the National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA) in response to the demands
○ Gave the government special emergency powers to mobilize all the resources in the nation to defeat the enemy
○ Allowed for conscription, but only for home defense
● Government-run camps where people who are considered a threat are detained
● Nazi Germany put all opposers in internment camps in WWII
Liberation of the Netherlands
● Food and fuel supplies had been cut off to the Dutch by the end of 1944
● In early April, Canadian troops began their attack on the Netherlands
● Battles were fought house by house
● Casualties were high: over 6300 Canadians were killed
● April 17, Canadians defeated the German army in the northern city of Groningen
● Some Canadians worked their way south to the city of Zwolle, while other Canadians fought their way into the cities of Arnhem and Apeldoorn.
● May 4, the German troops in the Netherlands were surrounded and surrendered
● Canada begun airdrops of food for the people in the Netherlands, even before the Germans surrendered
○ This was followed by convoys of trunks carrying food and fuel
○ Eventually, Canadian army trucks were delivering thousands of tonnes of food a day to the civilian population
● Canadians were hailed as heroes
What happened in 1939?
● September 1: Germany invades Poland
● September 3: Britain and France declare war on Germany
● September 10: Canada declares war on Germany
● December: Canada agrees to host BCATP
What happened in 1940?
● April: Germany invades Denmark and Norway
● May: Germany invades Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France
● May-June: Evacuation of Dunkirk
● June: National Resource Mobilization Act allows conscription of Canadians for home defence
● June 22: France surrenders to Hitler
● July: Germany air force begins bombing Britain ("The Battle of Britain")
When was the Battle of the Atlantic fought?
What happened in 1941?
● June 22: Germany invades USSR
● December 7: Japan bombs Pearl Harbour
● December 8: United States declares war on Japan
● December 25: Canadian soldiers defeated in Japan's invasion of Hong Kong
What happened in 1942?
● February: Japanese-Canadians sent to internment camps
● April: Canadians vote in plebiscite to support conscription
● August: Raid on French port of Dieppe by Canadian and other Allied forces.
When did the Allies bomb German cities?
What happened in 1943?
● July: Canadian troops participate in invasion of Sicily and mainland Italy
● December: Canadians win Battle of Ortona, Italy
What happened in 1944?
● June 6: D-Day; Canadian troops join British and Americans in Allied invasion of Normandy in northern France
What happened in 1945?
● Spring: Canadian troops help liberate the Netherlands from German military control
● May 7: Germany surrenders
● August 6: United States drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima
● August 9: United States drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki
● August 15: Japan surrenders
What was the Munich Agreement and what did Hitler do?
● The Munich Agreement in September 1938, let Hitler take over part of Czechoslovakia on the promise that he would cease his aggression
● In March 1939, however, Hitler ignored the terms of the agreement, and his troops marched through the rest of Czechoslovakia
What did the British king and queen do in May 1939 and what was their purpose?
● In May, Britain's King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited Canada, the first time a reigning monarch had ever visited this country
● The purpose of their visit was to rally support for Britain in these tense times (after Germany took over Czechoslovakia)
● Crowds of cheering Canadians lined the streets wherever the royal couple appeared across the country
● When the King and Queen left Halifax on June 15, they could be satisfied that the bonds of friendship between Canada and the former "mother country" remained very strong
What did the Prime Minister Machenzie King want?
● Prime Minister Mackenzie King did not want Canada to become involved in another world conflict
● He had desperately hoped that Britain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler would be successful
● He doesn't want to bring up the issue of conscription that would deeply divide Canada
● Canada's economy was slowly improving, and King didn't want the country plunged back into debt
What assurance did Mackenzie King give Canadians during the debate on Canada's involvement in the war? Why did he do this?
● He said that there would be no conscription
● He would lose support in Quebec if conscription was enacted
What did Prime Minister King do to decide Canada's response toward World War II?
● On September 8, Prime Minister King called a special session of Parliament to decide Canada's response
● King gave a strong speech in favour of declaring war
● The Minister of Justice, Ernest Lapointe from Quebec, also spoke in favour of the war, which helped convince Quebec voters that Canada's involvement in the war was necessary
- Lapointe spoke bluntly about what conscription would do to Liberal supporters in Quebec
What party was against going to war?
Only J.S. Woodsworth, leader of the Commonwealth Cooperative Federation (CCF), argued against going to war
When did Canada declare war on Germany?
On September 10, 1939
How was Canada not ready for the war in 1939?
● Army, air force, and navy troops were small in number, and most of Canada's equipment was outdated and unfit for combat
● The army had only 4500 troops, a few dozen anti-tank guns, sixteen tanks, and no modern artillery
● The air force and the navy also had outdated equipment and only a small number of recruits
Compare Canadians’ reaction to the announcement of World War I with that of World War II. Why did many people volunteer?
● People did not cheer on the streets
● Aboriginal people volunteered at a higher percentage of their population than any other group in Canada
● Many people volunteered for different reasons
- Money ($1.30/day for privates plus $60/month for a dependant spouse and $30/month for each child.)
- Strong ties with a Britain/sense of duty
- Nationalism/National pride
What was the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan?
● The BCATP was a plan in which British instructors would train pilots/other flight personnel from all over the British Commonwealth in Canada
● In December 1939, Canada agreed to host/administer it
Why was Canada chosen to host the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan?
● Open skies
● Optimal climate
● Far away from enemy aircraft
Why did Mackenzie King support the British Commonwealth Air Training?
● Mackenzie King supported the plan because he wanted Canada’s contribution to the war effort to remain within Canada-- home-- as much as possible
- By adopting the BCATP, Canada would be doing exactly that: supporting the war at home
● However, Mackenzie King’s wishes did not exactly come true, as Canada ended up becoming much more involved in the war, outside of the BCATP
How did Canada's policy of total war change the economy? Why was the policy necessary?
● C.D. Howe, minister of Department of Munitions and Supplies, was authorized to do whatever he thought was necessary to prepare the economy for wartime demands
- Vancouver built ships for the Navy
- Montreal built planes/bombers (such as the Lancaster)
- Canada's car industries built military vehicles/tanks
- Munitions factories opened in Ontario and Quebec
- Farmers produced more wheat/beef/dairy products/other foods
● If the private sector was unable to produce what Howe wanted, he created Crown corporations to do the job
● This policy was necessary to prepare Canada for war--Canadians were willing to do whatever it took to defeat the enemy
When was Department of Munitions and Supplies established and who was the minister of Munitions and Supplies?
● In April 1940, the government established the Department of Munitions and Supplies, and King appointed C.D. Howe as its minister
What authority was Howe given and what did he do?
● Howe was given extraordinary authority to do whatever it took to gear up the economy to meet wartime demands
● He told industries what to produce and how to produce it
- Vancouver was building ships for navy
- Montreal was constructing new planes and bombers
- Canada's car industries were producing military vehicles and tanks
● Even farmers were told to produce more wheat, beef, dairy products and other foods
What does the Allies include?
Britain, France, Commonwealth countries including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
What does the Axis power include?
Germany, Italy and Japan
How and when did Germany invade Denmark and Norway?
Germany used its blitzkrieg tactic and invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940
What is the blitzkrieg?
● The blitzkrieg was a powerful and extremely successful war tactic
● In surprise attacks and with lightening speed, German panzers (tanks) would crash through enemy lines, driving forward as far as they could
● At the same time, war phanes would roar through the skies, constantly bombing the enemy below
● German soldiers would also parachute into enemy territory, destroying vital communication and transportation links
From where did the Allied forces evacuate to Britain?
How long did it take to conquer Denmark?
How long did it take to conquer Norway?
When did German Wehrmatch begin its invasion of the Netherlands?
On May 10, 1940, German Wehrmacht began its invasion of the Netherlands.
When did France surrender?
The French army was no match for the powerful German troops, and on June 22, 1940, France surrendered
How did the Germans approach Dunkirk?
● The German forces moved quickly through Belgium, and finally into France (Dunkirk is a city in France)
● German panzer reached the English Channel within a few days of arriving in France
● Allies become trapped at Dunkirk
What did the Allies do when they got trapped at Dunkirk?
● British navy along with all other usable ships, attempt to rescue forces on May 26, 1940
●hundreds of fishing boats, pleasure crafts, and ferries joined naval and merchant ships as they headed across the Channel for the beaches of Dunkirk.
●German Luftwaffe (air force) bomb Dunkirk, making escape more difficult, but did not stop evacuation
●340 000 rescued
●they had to leave all equipment behind
What was Hitler's plan in Operation Sea Lion?
● Hitler planned to invade Britain and launched Operation Sea Lion on July 10, 1940
- Luftwaffe started a massive bombing campaign, aimed at destroying harbours and shipping facilities in southern England
● Germany wanted to destroy Britain's air power first
When did the Germans begin their bombing campaign in Britain? What were they targetting? Explain when and how their strategy changed as the campaign continued.
●July 10, 1940 ~ beginning of bombing campaign
○ aimed at harbours and shipping facilities in southern England
●August 1940 ~ Germans targeted airfields and aircraft factories
●September 1940 ~ Germans shifted to bombing civilian targets
○ German planes bombed London and other cities for 55 consecutive nights.
○ These raids became known as 'the Bliz.'
Who won the Battle of Britain? Why?
● Britain overcame invasion
● Britain had a very sophisticated radar system
○ gave them early warnings og German air raids
● Britain used Spitfires/Hurricanes
○ fighter planes that were limited in number but were extremely effective defence planes.
● Many pilots from Commonwealth countries supported Britain during the battle, including 80 Canadian fighter pilots.
When did Hitler give up on invading Britain?
Hitler gives up in May 1941
How many people were killed in the Blitz?
23,000 people were killed; mostly British civilians.
Why did Hitler invade Soviet Union?
● It was Hitler's original plan to take over the USSR when the time was right
- To fulfil his long-term plans of a German Empire
● Hitler became suspicious of the motives of the Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, when the USSR rook over part of the Balkans in 1940
Was Operation Barbarossa successful? Why or why not?
● It was unsucessful
● Germans were ill-equipped for the long and bitterly cold Soviet winter
When did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbour and what did it lead to?
● December 7, 1941
● On December 8, 1941, the US government declared war on Japan
● Germany and Italy then decalred war on the US
Where was Japan invading and why?
● Japan invaded US and European colonies in Southeast Asia
- Hawaii, Philippines, Burma (Myanmar), Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), Hong Kong
● Rich in valuable resources such as oil, rubber, and tin
When and Who did Hong Kong fell to?
● December 25, 1941 to Japanese
What was Canadians' reactions to the invasion of Hong Kong?
● Canada had sent troops to hong Kong only months prior to the attack
- all 1975 Canadians were either killed or taken prisoner by the Japanese
- of the 555 who perished, nearly half died as prisoners during the three and a half years they were imprisoned
● Canadians at home were horrified to learn of the fate of the Canadians and angry that troops had been sent to Hong Kong
Why did the Allies launch the Dieppe Raid?
● Soviet leaders wanted the Allies to invade Europe from the west, a move that would weaken the German army by forcing it to fight the war on two fronts
- By the middle of 1942, the Soviet Union (now apart of the Allied powers) had lost close to a million soldiers in its desperate fight against invading German troops
● A test run of the technologies and strategies
- The Allies were not prepared for a full invasion of Europe, but they felt ready for a trial run
- A smaller raid would give them an opportunity to test new techniques and equipment, as well as serve as a reconnaissance mission for a future invasion
● Canadians training in Britain were anxious to participate in the war. Until 1942, most of the war had been fought in Africa.
What was the Allies' plans for the Dieppe Raid?
● Four pre-dawn attacks along the coast were to be followed by one main attack on the town of Dieppe, France half an hour later
● Allied troops were to be covered by air force bombers, and tanks were to be landed at the town
What went wrong during the Dieppe Raid?
● On the morning of August 19, 1942, one of the ships carrying Canadian soldiers to Dieppe unexpectedly met a small German convoy
- The two sides engaged in a brief sea battle, but the noise alerted German troops on shore
● The ships were delayed, so Canadian soldiers landed in the early daylight
- They were easily machine-gunned by the waiting German soldiers
● Communication between the ships and troops on land was poor, and commanders sent more reinforcements ashore, believing the first wave of soldiers had reached the town
● Allied tanks couldn't get enough traction on the pebbled beach, and many were left immobile
What was the results of the Dieppe Raid?
● Casualties were high
- 907 Canadians were killed
- 586 were wounded
- 1874 taken prisoner
● Some historians claim that the Allies were later able to launch a successful invasion based on what they had learned at Dieppe
● Others maintain that the raid was badly planned and taught the Germans more than it taught the Allies
What useful information might have been learned from the raid?
Allies learned that...
● Tanks were useless on certain terrain
● Timing and communication is important
Germany learned that....
● What the Allies have access to
When was the Battle of Atlantic in full force?
What was the reason of Battle of the Atlantic?
● Germans wanted to cut off supply to Britain
- U-boats, Kriegsmarine, Luftwaffe
● Britain was reliant on Canada and the United States for food and military supplies
What did the Allies develop to protect supply ships from being sunk by German torpedoes?
● Allies developed convoys: warships escorted vessels carrying vital supplies
● Canada started building small warships, called corvettes, to escort convoys across the ocean
● Liberator Bombers were used to help the corvettes
What contributed to Allies' success in the Battle of the Atlantic?
● By May 1942, the British had cracked the German naval code, which meant the Allies could track German submarine movements more easily
○ They crashed a second one in December
● Allies were building more ships than being destroyed
● Better training of RCN personnel and more sophisticated equipment
● Corvettes were helped by Liberator bombers
○ Liberator bombers could fly far enough from bases in Britain and Canada to protect much of the convoy's route
What was the significance of Allies' succes in the Battle of the Atlantic?
● Helped win the war against Nazi Germany
○ Britain is able to get supplies from Canada and US
● Canada's navy grew significantly during the war
○ When war broke out, Canada only had 13 ships and 1819 sailors
○ By 1945, Canada had 400 vessels and over 100,000 sailors
● Women took a more active role in the navy (not combat roles)
○ The Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service was created in 1942
● RCN was credited for providing about half the escorts across the Atlantic
What was the result of Canadian contributions in the Air?
● The Royal Canadian Air Force (RACF) grew quickly after the war began
● Participated in bombing raids in Britain, North Africa, Italy, Northwest Europe, Southeast Asia and night bombing over Germany
● High casualty rate
● Women took a more active role in the air force (not combat roles)
- In 1941, the RACF formed the WOmen's Division (WD) to support the war effort
- Women were trained as clerks, cooks, hospital assistants, drivers, telephone operators, welders, instrument mechanics, engine mechanics, and women pilots
How and why did the Allies bombed Germany?
● The bombings were aided at destroying Germany industry (started in mid-1943)
- US bombed during the day
- British and Canadian bombed during the night
● One of the worst attacks was on the German city of Hamburg
What are the reasons for the growth of technology and industry during WWII?
● To have an advantage over the enemy
● Surprise the enemy with new innovations--win the war easier
List the war technologies improved/invented during WWII
● Atomic bomb
● V-2 rocket
● Coding machine (Enigma)
● Jet-propelled airplanes
● Medical technology
What improvements were made to the submarine during WWII?
● Germans invented a snorkel that brought air into a submarine
○ Surfacing to recharge its battery made a submarine vulnerable to attack
○ The snorkel allowed batteries to be recharged below the surface
What type of new airplane was being used in WWII?
The first jet-propelled airplanes were used in WWII.
What qualities made the jet-propelled airplanes superior to propellor-driven ones?
They could fly higher and faster than propellor-driven planes.
Which alliances produced jet-propelled airplanes?
Both the Axis powers and the Allies worked around the clock to produce as many jets as they could.
To what extent did the jet-propelled airplanes affect the war?
Jets were not perfected until after 1945, and not enough were produced to affect the outcome of the war.
What are the purpose of synthetics?
Synthetics were developed by scientists to replace natural, raw materials that were no longer available as a result of the war.
What are some examples of synthetics? What were they used in?
● Synthetic rubber
○ Stronger than natural rubber and more resistant to heat.
○ became a substitute for Japanese silk in parachutes
○ Clear plastic used for aircraft windows
○ Superior to glass because it did not shatter
○used to improve radar equipment
● Other plastics were used to waterproof tanks
What is penicillin?
Who isolated it?
When was it first isolated?
When was it used to treat infections in humans?
How effective was it?
● Penicillin is an antibiotic
● It was isolated by Alexander Fleming, a British scientist
● It was first isolated in 1929
● It was not used to treat infections in humans until 1941
● It contributed to a 95% recovery rate for wounded Allied soldiers.
What did plastic surgeons do during WWII?
They performed thousands of operations using innovative techniques to restore hands, feet, and faces.
How was radar used in the war?
● Britain had a very sophisticated radar system that contributed to their success in the Battle of Britain
● The radar system gave British early warnings of German air raids
Why was coding important?
● allowed armies to relay information in a manner which the enemy won't understand
- included women (as codebreakers)
● spurred the development of an early computer that could decode enemy signals
Why did the Allies start to win the war in 1942?
● The Allies gained strength when the US entered the conflict in December 1941
● The Allies began to win the Battle of the Atlantic
● The Allies made important advances in the Pacific
Why did the Allies want to invade Italy and Sicily?
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill felt that the best way for the Allies to recapture Europe was through what he called the "soft underbelly" of Europe -- Italy and Sicily
What was the objective of the invasion of Italy?
Prime Minister Winston Churchill felt that the best way for the Allies to recapture Europe was through Sicily and Italy.
How long did the invasion of Italy last?
● Almost 2 years
● On July 10, 1943, Canadian soldiers participated in the Allies' invasion of sicily.
● Fighting in Italy continued until the spring of 1945
When did Canadian soldiers participate in the Allies' invasion of Sicily? Were they successful?
● On July 10, 1943
● The Allies were successful after two weeks of fierce fighting.
When did the Allies move to mainland Italy? How were the conditions?
● In September, they moved to mainland Italy.
● The terrain was rugged, with muddy conditions and cold, rainy weather
● Advances were slow; battles were often fought house by house and street by street.
How long did Canada fight in Ortona? How many casualties were there?
● Canada fought in Ortona for a month
● Canada lost 1372 soldiers before the Germans withdrew
When did the Allies take Rome?
On June 4, 1944
When was D-Day?
June 6, 1944
What does Operation Overlord refer to?
It's a full-scale invasion of Europe
What were the five landing points along the beach in Normandy for D-Day/Operation Overlord?
● Sword -- British forces
● Juno -- Canadian forces
● Gold -- British forces
● Omaha -- US forces
● Utah -- US forces
What were the attacks on the beaches on D-Day preceded by?
Massive air attacks, and paratroopers were parachuted in behind the German lines
What is the task given to Canadian forces on D-Day?
They had to make their way past the concrete barriers the Germans had erected, through barbed wire and other obstacles, in order to work their way inland
What are the advantages the Allied troops have on D-Day?
● They had massive air and naval support, with the ability to land more than a million troops within two or three weeks of the initial landing
● They had managed to keep the details of the attack a secret from the Germans
● German defence was poorly coordinated
- The weather had been stormy leading up to the invasion, and although the Germans had anticipated an attack, their meteorologists concluded that the Allies would not attempt a landing in bad weather
Where did the Allies push thorugh after the successful landing on D-Day?
They pushed through France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and into Germany
When did Canadian troops begin their attack on the Netherlands?
Early April 1945
What many Canadians were killed during the liberation of the Netherlands?
over 6300 Canadians were killed
When had the Allies attempted to liberate the Netherlands before? What happened?
● The Allies had attempted to liberate Holland before in 1944 and failed
● German troops had retaliated by destroying much of the port cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and by flooding much of the countryside.
Why were the Dutch suffering so much in 1944~1945?
● By the end of 1944, food and fuel supplies to the Dutch (people of the Netherlands) had been cut off, and many were starving to death.
● The bitter winter of 1944-1945 made difficult conditions even worse for civilians.
List the sequence of the battles/events during the Liberation of the Netherlands.
● By April 17, Canadians had defeated the German army in the northern city of Groningen.
● Some Canadian troops worked their way south to the city of Zwolle, while others fought their way to the cities of Arnhem and Apeldoorn.
● By May 4, the German troops in the Netherlands were surrounded and surrendered.
When did the Germans surrender the war? Why? What happened to Hitler?
● The Allies invaded Germany from the west and the Soviet Union attacked from the easy.
● Germany surrendered the war on May 7, 1945
○ Earlier, Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide in a bunker in Berlin rather than submit to the Allies
Why was D-Day necessary?
● First successful landing in Europe to fight off the Nazi Germans
How did the D-Day invasion differ from the raid on Dieppe?
● Planned and rehearsed down to the smallest detail
● Kept it a secret to the Germans
How many people did the Germans murder during the holocaust? What races were targetted?
● By 1945, the Germans had murdered more than 6 million people
● Jews, Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, and other people that Hitler/Nazi government thought to be inferior were targeted.
Why didn't Japanese surrender after most of its air force and navy had been destroyed?
● The army was still strong
● The Japanese had demonstrated that they would "fight to the last person"
What did the US do as a response to Japan's reluctance to surrender?
● The US government decided to use the atomic bomb
● On August 6, 1945, "Enola Gay" dropped an atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima
● On August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
● Japanese surrendered
What does "Rosie the Riveter" refer to?
● Women that were mobilized to take men's places due to a shortage of labour
● They began working as welders, drillers, punch press operators, and machine operators
What were single women in high demand?
● They often had limited family obligations
● They could work long hours
● Many single women moved from rural areas to the industrial cities
What did some provincial governments and companies do to ensure employments?
● In Ontario and Quebec, where most munitions factories were located, the provincial governments began to provide money for day care facilities to ensure married women could find factory works
● Companies built dormitories to house employees close to the factories, and the government helped subsidize the food and rent in the dormitories
What did increased production and employment lead to?
● People suddenly had more money to spend due to employment and production
- However, there were also fewer goods to buy, as most of what was being shipped to Britain
What did the Prime Minister King do to prevent inflation and massive debt problems?
● He chose James Ilsley, a former lawyer from Nova Scotia, to address these concerns
● As minister of finance, Ilsley enthusiastically set about encouraging Canadians to buy Victory Bonds, as they had during WWI
- By selling bonds, the government would ensure that Canadians saved money, which would help solve the problem of inflation
- The government would then use the money from the bonds to help finance the war
● Ilsley also increased income taxes, which helped the government's revenue
● Froze wages and prices
How successful was Ilsly in preventing inflation and debt?
Ilsley was successful in raising funds fro the government, but his actions did not prevent prices from rising, and this increased inflation
When did Japan surrender?
They surrendered on August 15, 1945
What did the government do to reduce inflation?
● In 1941, the Wartime Prices and Trade Board took the drastic step of freezing all wages and prices as a way to prevent inflation
● In 1942, King introduced food rationing, which meant Canadians were allowed only a limited amount of certain goods per week
How were unions' power limited?
● The federal government tried to restrict or prevent strikes by unions
● The introduction of wage and price control
● Canada's Minister of Munitions and Supply, C.D. Howe, was strongly anti-union
What changes did the war bring to the role of government?
● The wartime government had been involved in almost every aspect of Canadians' lives, and many Canadians wanted some of this involvement to continue
● The CCF party and its platform of social reform was becoming increasingly popular at both the national and provincial levels, a fact that was not lost on Prime Minister King
- In 1943, the CCF made up the opposition in Ontario
- In 1944, it formed the government in Saskatchewan under T.C. "Tommy" Douglas
● Prime Minister King had already brought in an unemployment insurance program in 1940
● In 1945, he expanded Canada's social assistance programs by bringing in the Family Allowance program, which helped families cover the cost of child maintenance
What did King impose in 1940 in response to the demand for more government action?
● King's government brought in the National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA)
- This act gave the government special emergency powers to mobilize all the resources in the nation to defeat the enemy
- The NRMA allowed for conscription, but only for home defence
What did King do to decide the issue of oversea conscription?
● King decided to hold a plebiscite to get people's views on the issue
● On April 27, 1942, voters were asked whether they would release the government from its promise not to send conscripts overseas
● In all provinces except Quebec, the majority voted "yes"
- The issue of conscription had divided the nation
What was the result of the conscription crisis?
● In an amendment to the National Resources Mobilization Act in August 1942, King finally permitted overseas conscription, even though conscripts were not sent until 1944
● Quebec felt betrayed by King's actions
- King tried to smooth over the conflict with the slogan, "Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary"
● King avoided the issue of overseas conscription for two years
● King replaced Ralston (pro-conscription) with General Andrew McNaughton (pro-volunteers) when there was a severe shortage of trained infantry in Europe
- McNaughton failed to convince volunteering for duty overseas
● King finally agreed to send conscripts overseas
- In the final final months of the war, some 12,000 NRMA conscripts were sent to Europe
- refusal to leave in BC; riots in Montreal; motion of condemnation in Quebec
- In the end, only 2463 Canadian conscripts ever reached the front
What did the policy of total war lead to?
● Every sector of the economy boomed
- There was a rapid increased in the production of aluminum, the strong, rust-proof, and light metal used in the manufacture of aircraft
- Paper production rose because Germany had occupied Norway and Sweden, and was preventing paper products from reaching Germany's enemies
- Great increase in demand for petroleum products to fuel wartime tanks, trucks, and airplanes
- Major discoveries of oil fields in Alberta
● Many new jobs were created, not just in production but also in transportation, processing, and providing services for the new industries
What is gross domestic product?
● Gross domestic product (GDP) is one measure of a nation's output
● This figure is the value of all the goods (such as food, cars, and airplanes) and services (such as nursing, insurance, and education) produced in a country in one year
What sector was being overtaken by industry in Canada and why?
● Agriculture was overtaken by industry
● Manufacturing was now much more important
● Huge investments were made in mining, production, transportation, and service industries
● Canadian cities and the industrial areas around them became much more important contributors to the economy
- Attracted a massive wave of post-war immigration that led to the multicultural society
How did the role of Canada change on the world stage?
● Canada made great contribution to the war in both human and economic terms
● Canada had built the world's third-largest navy and fourth-largest air force
How did many west coast communities in Canada react to the bombing of Pearl Habour and invasion of Hong Kong?
● They "blacked out" their areas at night, turning off all their lights so their location would not be obvious to airborne attackers.
● Japanese-Canadians living in BC were a target of public suspicion.
○ People believed that if the Japanese were to attack Canada, the Japanese-Canadians were support them.
● Some people believed that the Japanese-Canadians may be spies
By 1941, how many Japanese-Canadians were living in Canada? BC?
There were over 23,000 Japanese-Canadians living in Canada, 22,000 in BC.
What happened in early 1942 in regards to Japanese-Canadians?
● Under the War Measures Act, all Japanese-Canadians living near BC coast were "invited" to move to the Okanagan Valley. About 750 people moved voluntarily.
● Families were separated, and many were sent to isolated internment camps in the interior of BC, where they were detained without trial until the end of the war
● Some families chose to go, instead, to Alberta or Manitoba, where they laboured on beet farms
- These locations were farther away from their homes, but at least families were permitted to stay together
What happened to Japanese-Canadian property?
● In January 1943, the Custodian of Enemy Property, a federal government official, was given the power to confiscate and sell Japanese-Canadian property
● People who had been relocated inland lost everything--all their possessions were sold at fire-dale prices, and the owners received virtually nothing
What choice was given to Japanese-Canadians after the war?
● They could apply for repatriation to Japan, which had been devastated by war, or they could agree to settle permanently east of the Rocky Mountains
● The Supreme Court upheld the government's position to deport its own citizens
● In 1947, the government bowed to public pressure and cancelled the repatriation order
What did the government do to compensate Japanese-Canadians?
● The federal government apologized for its actions in 1988
● The compensation agreed to pay the 1400 people who were affected by the policy and were still living $21,000 each
● It also agreed to restore Canadian citizenship to any person who had lost it through repatriation to Japan
On what date did Britain declare war on Germany?
On September 3, 1939
On what date did Canada declare war on Germany?
On September 10, 1939
How did Canada's declaration of war in 1939 differ from that in 1914?
Canada was not automatically at war in the 1939 and consulted with Parliament on September 8th before deciding to enter on September 10, 1939.
What was the purpose of the Royal visit in the Spring of 1939?
The Royal visit in the spring of 1939 was a public relations effort to recruit loyal subjects and raise support.
Who was the British Prime Minister before Winston Chuchill?
Who was Camillien Houde?
● Montreal mayor
● He went against the NRMA, which authorized conscription for home defense, by refusing to register and urged others to do the same
● He was placed in Canadian internment camp during WWII
What/who were Zombies?
Men who were conscripted under the NRMA but refused to serve overseas.
Who was the man in charge of the production of war production in Canada?
Minister of Munitions and Supply, Mr. C.D. Howe
British Prime Minister who signed the Munch Agreement with Hitler
How much did the cost of living rise between 1939 and 1941? Why?
● The cost of living raised by 20%
● In war time some things become harder to get and prices rise as a result.
What are some foods that were limited by rationing?
sugar, butter, preserves, meat, coffee, tea, evaporated milk, flour
Why did car traffic decrease on the roads of Canada after Dec 7, 1941?
● Gas was rationed
● It was difficult to get rubber
What effect did war shortage have on the length of women's skirts?
Skirts were made shorter to save fabric.
Who were zootsuiters?
● Young men who flaunted their defiance with clothing restrictions (and society in general) by wearing long jackets with heavily padded shoulders, baggy trousers pegged at the cuff, and broadbrimmed hats.
● They were encountered with hostility, especially from men in uniform, and brawls were common.
● They were looked down upon as rebellious
Full employment was reached in 1944. What is full employment? What was the average hourly industrial wage for women? Men?
● No unemployment
● Women ~ 47.9 cents/hour
● Men ~ 71.2 cents/hour