Flashcards in Ch 6-8 (Mostly Terms) Deck (81):
● The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
● Started after the end of WWII and lasted over 40 years
● It did not erupt into an open war
● The cause of the Cold War was because of the differing views that the two countries had on poltiical and economic systems.
○ Soviet Union was communist
○ US and most Western countries were capitalist
● A Russian clerk at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa
● He decided to defect from the Soviet Union to Canada
○ He had documents that proved the existance of a Soviet spy ring within the Canadian government.
○ He brought these documentsto the Ottawa Journal, but they didn't pay attention to him.
○ The next day, he brought the documents to the RCMP, the department of justice, and the PM's office who also did not believe him.
○ After his apartment was broken into by Soviet agents, the Ottawa police finally listened to his story.
○ Canadian officials informed the British and US governments of the Soviet spy ring.
○ He was given another indentity after the ordeal to protect him from the Soviets.
● Powers capable of inflicting massive destruction
● The Soviet Union and the United States were superpowers because of their military strength.
● Ecnomies were based on private enterprise, with individuals investing in business for profict
● Citizens had basic freedoms such a free press and freedom of speech
● The United States and most Western countries were examples of it
● North Atlantic Treaty Organization
● Formed in 1949
● A military alliance including Canada, US, Britain, and other Western European nations
● Any attack on one NATO member was to be treated as an attack on all
● NATO members agreed that, if conventional weapons were not sufficient, they would use tactical nuclear weapons (atomic bombs and artillery shells.)
○ As a last resort, they would be prepared to wage total nuclear war.
● Warsaw Pact was established by the Soviet Union as a result (USSR felt threatened by NATO).
● Established by the USSR in 1955
● This alliance made up of Eastern European countries to protect these countries and the Soviet Union from attack
○ USSR felt threatened by NATO countries
● NORAD - North American Air Defence Agreement
○ renamed in 1981 - North American Aerospace Defence Command
● Canada and the United States agreed to establish it in 1957 to meet the possible threat of Soviet attack on North America.
● Integrated the air-defence forces of the US and Canada under joint command
○ Included fighter forces, missile bases, and air-defence radar, which were were all controlled by a central command station, located deep within Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado
● Had a force of 1000 bombers at its disposal at one time
○ Some bombers were always in the air, armed with nuclear weapons.
● A separate Canadian command post, under joint control, was established deep inside tunnels at North Bay, Ontario.
● Established in April 1945 by fifty one countries
● Based on the idea of collective security
○ Can impose moral, economic, and military sanctions upon aggressors
● Include General Assembly as a forum of discussion and Security Council as a body to maintain peace and security
● Founders of UN pledged to abolish disease/famine and to protect human rights.
○ Created various agencies like World Health Organization and UNICEF
○ Established the International Monetary Fund.
● Body of U.N that's responsible for maintaining peace and security
● Has 5 permanent members-- all of which have veto powers.
○ Britain, France, USA, Russia/USSR, China
● Has 10 non-permanent members, each holding a 2-year term
● World Health Organization
● An agency created by UN to abolish disease and famine
● One thing they do to reduce illness is test water wells.
● United Nations Children's Fund
● An agency created by UN to abolish disease and famine
● International Monetary Fund
● To stabilize the world economy by helping countries that face great debt and the collapse of their currencies
● Korea was left divided after WWII
○ North Korea - Communist state supported by USSR
○ South Korea - Fragile democracy supported by USA
● Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea
● UN force (mostly Americans) was sent to force the invaders to retreat
○ Canada sent thousands of troops and three naval destroyers
● Lester Pearson, Canada's Minister of External Affairs, urged all sides to agree to a ceasefire.
● USA considered using the atomic bomb on Korea, but did not end up using it.
● A ceasefire was reached in 1953
● Increased tensions between the West and the communist nations
● Egypt took control of Suez Canal that was previously owned by British and French investors
○ The canal links the Mediterranean and Red seas, and provides the shortest sea route from Europe to the Indian Ocean.
● Israel, Egypt's neighbouring country, felt threatened because Egypt could prevent ships to and from Israel from using the canal.
● Israel invaded Egypt, supported by Britain and France
○ They landed troops in the canal zone, despite the UN Security Council's resolution to cease hostilities.
○ This was very controversial-- USA was mad that they weren't consulted with first. Canada's opinion was divided.
● USSR responded by supplying Egypt with financial aid and missiles, immediately
● Pearson, Canada's Minister of External Affairs, suggested that the UN send a Emergency Force to separate and mediate the enemies.
○ A Canadian general led the force, which was made up of countries not directly involved in the conflict.
○ Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize for his success in defusing the crisis.
Louis St. Laurent
● Liberal PM
● Refused to outlaw communism, because he believed that outlawing an ideology is a tactic of a dictatorship-- not a democratic country, like Canada
● Denounced British camp; French intervention during Suez Crisis, refused to support them
● Canada's Minister of External Affairs during the Korean war and Suez Crisis
○ Later became prime minister.
● Went to U.N. during Suez Crisis told U.N. Emergency force to be sent to Suez Canal to separate and mediate between the rival armies
● Won Nobel Peace Prize for defusing the Suez Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
● In 1959, Cuban rebels under the leadership of Fidel Castro, overthrew Cuba's pro-U.S. leader in a revolution.
● USA reacted angrily by imposing trade/economic sanctions on Cuba
● In 1961, USA backed an invasion of Cuba by a group of anti-Castro Cubans.
○ Invasion was a failure; encouraged them to turn to USSR for support.
● In October 1962, US planes took photographs showing that the USSR was installing offensive nuclear missile bases in Cuba
○ Missiles launched from these sites were a direct threat to US security.
● US blockaded Cuba (naval and air)
● Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev refused to remove the missiles, at first.
○ USSR armed forces were put on full alert
○ Soviet ships streamed towards the US ships that were blockading the island
● At the last minute, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile bases in exchange for a promise that the US would not invade Cuba
● The Cuban missile crisis was the event that could have turned the Cold War into a full on Nuclear WWIII. The air force was constantly in the air with bombs, able to drop them at any second. This crisis put the citizens all over the world into a state of panic.
● A state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft developed by Canada and the AV Row Company as a part of its military program in 1950s.
● Project was cancelled because when the superpowers developed long-range missiles, interceptor fighter planes like the Arrow became useless.
○ The project was also very expensive
● A popular opinion states that the Senior American officials wanted to kill the project because they could not build the fighter by themselves.
● Became Prime Minister in 1957
● Did not get along well with John Kennedy (U.S. President)
● Canadian PM during Cuban Missile Crisis
○ Did not believe the US photographs of the USSR nuclear missile bases in Cuba.
○ Initially refused to place Canada's NORAD forces on alert and did not allow US planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian basis.
○ Eventually put Canadian troops on alert, but damages to Canada-US relations had already been done.
● Soviet premier during Cuban Missile Crisis
○ Refused to remove missiles from Cuba, at first, but agreed to dismantle the missile bases at the last minute.
● Vietnam was divided into two
○ North = communist supported by USSR and China
○ South = a dictatorship supported by US
● US was worried that if South Vietnam were to fall to communism, then other Asian states would also fall (domino effect)
● At first US only offered military advice and economic help, but started sending troops by the 1960s.
● In 1965, US President lyndon Johnson increased the number of US troops and authorized bombings on North Vietnam.
● Vietnam was the first war recorded by television cameras.
● In 1968, the public learned of the Tet Offensive and My Lai Massacre
○ My Lai Massacre - Mass killing of unarmed citizens in the city of My Lai (located in South Vietnam)
○ Tet Offensive - North Vietnamese attacked cities throughout South Vietnam and briefly seized the US embassy in the city of Saigon.
● The last US combat forces were pulled out of the war in 1973 and South Vietnam fell in 1975
● Prime Minister Lester Pearson criticized the US bombing campaign (Operation Rolling Thunder) in a speech at a university in Philadelphia.
● Not a superpower, but still has large/moderate influence and international recognition
● Canada was a middle power-- Trudeau attempted to bridge gaps between East/West & North/South during the Cold War
● A liberal elected prime minister in 1968.
● Believed Canada's foreign policy should be less dependent on U.S. approval
○ Officially recognized the communist government of the People's Republic of China.
○ Did not wish to anger the USA.
● Wanted to scale back Canada's participation in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union in the hope that this would ease Cold War tensions
○ From 1970-1972, nuclear missiles were removed from Canada's NATO forces in Europe.
○ In 1984, the last nuclear warheads were removed from Canadian soil.
● Wanted to bridge the gaps between East/West & North/South during the Cold War
○ "Trade and aid" policy - prosperous nations of the North should be helping the poverty-stricken countries of the South to develop their economies and improve living conditions.
● Formed the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1968
● Formed the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) in 1973
Free Trade Agreement
● Agreement signed in 1989 between Canada & U.S. to allow goods produced in each country to cross border tariff-free
● Became a very controversial issue
● North American Free Trade Agreement
● Signed in 1992 between Canada, Mexico, and U.S.
○ Expanded on the free trade zone established in the Free Trade Agreement; NAFTA included free trade with Mexico
● Came into effect in 1994
● Associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms near the end of the cold war
● A policy of reconstruction; political movement for reformation in the Soviet Union
● Instituted by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev near the end of the cold war.
● A Soviet policy of openness; allows for open discussions of political/social issues.
○ Censorship was loosened and greater freedom of speech was allowed.
1. Process which regions and countries in world are becoming interconnected
2. A vast network of business, communications, and cultural links among countries.
● Canadians were also active in the central African country of Rwanda
● This small nation was torn apart by ethnic rivalries
● France and Belgium, the former colonial forces in the area, sent troops to try to control the slaughter
● A small detachment of UN peacekeepers was also sent under the command of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire
● When Dallaire realized the extent of the planned killings, he sent a series of urgent appeals to UN headquarters in NY
○ He outlined an ambitious military plan to halt the killing
○ He thought that the UN needed to send a huge multinational force to disarm the warring factions
○ For the plan to work, two things were required: speed and the support of the US, the only country that could provide enough troops at short notice
● The response from the UN and Washington was unenthusiastic
○ The US feared a defeat similar to that in Somalia
● In April 1994, the world was horrified to learn of a massive wave of killing in Rwanda
○ Within a few weeks, close to a million people had died, including many women, old people, and babies
● In 1992, the UN launched “Operation Restore Hope” in Somalia
○ Somalia was an east African nation that had been ravaged by years of civil war (torn apart by ethnic rivalries) and starvation
● The mission was directed by the US, but Canadian forces joined those from other countries in distributing food and other essential supplies to the desperate local population
● Major crisis--One night, members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment arrested a Somali teenager found wandering in the Canadian base camp
○ During the night, the teen was tortured and beaten to death
● At first, a military inquiry found that only a few low-ranking officers had committed this terrible, racist crime
○ It later became clear that there had been a high-level attempt to cover up the incident
● Canadians were shocked by these events
● A serious shadow had been cast upon the reputation of Canada’s armed forces
● Foreign Investment Review Agency
● Established by Pierre Trudeau in 1973
● Ensured that foreign establishment of business in Canada was beneficial to country
○ Blocked any foreign investment that seemed not to be in Canada's interest
● Mulroney dismantled it and replaced it with Investment Canada
● Person forced to leave their homes because of war, persecution or natural disaster.
● Includes concentration camp survivors and others uprooted by the war
● These people had no homes, possessions, or hope for the future
● Canada accepted 165,000 of them, settling them in communities across the country
○ Many newcomers had a hard time in Canada, as they spoke no English and were unable to practise their former trades/professions.
● Housing in the outlying areas of cities
● Developers began to build many new homes to accommodate the expansion in Canada's population
○ Many of these new houses were located in the outlying areas of cities where land was cheaper-- the suburbs.
○ Many subdivisions became "bedroom communities" to which commuters returned at the end of the working day; these communities had their own schools, parks, places of worship, etc.
● Brought a new set of values that centred on the traditional family
○ Women went back to being house wives, men went back to being the moneymaker (breadwinner).
● Baby boom: the increase in birth rate post WW2. (1946-1961)
○ Birth rate began to decline in after 1961.
● Families were larger in the post-war years than they are today.
○ Average families had 3-4 children
● The "boomer" generation is the largest age group in Canada
○ Its influence has been felt throughout our culture and economy
○ They have reshaped many institutions (ie. Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, junior hockey, etc. flourished.) and more schools had to be built. New products were created specifically for the baby boomers.
● Capitalist society where individuals are encouraged to spend money on new products and services to benefit the economy
● Large-scale construction projects that require huge capital investment
● Process of referring political decision to the people for a direct vote
● Payments made by federal gov to some provinces so the standard of living will become more equal in Canada
● An aboriginal registered with federal gov. according to the terms of the Indian Act
● Saskatchewan premier who introduced complete Medicare program
● Program that allowed all people in all provinces to seek medical treatment without paying directly from their own pocket
● Country that Pierre Trudeau wanted to build
● Government would have duty to protect rights and freedoms of people, foster their social and economical well-being.
● Government should not interfere with personal liberties
● Belief that women should have equality with man in political, social, economical fields.
● They should not be discriminated against on basis of their sex
● Group of individuals with common interests and concerns who attempt to pressure political decision makers
● Differences in income, wages, jobs in one area compared to another.
● Feeling on part of western Canada that federal policies favour central Canada
● Difference between expenditures (money spent) and revenue that happens when a government spends more than it takes in
● Something, typically money, that is owed or due.
● A period in human history charcterized by the shift from the industry of the Industrial Revolution to an economy based on Information Computerization
● Front de libération du Québec who were terrorists that bombed sites that was relevant to the government
● Terrorist group that fought in the name of le Québec libre- a "free" Québec
● Kidnapped James Cross, a British diplomat, on October 5, 1970, marking the start of the October Crisis
● On Oct 10, it kidnapped Quebec labor minister, Pierre Laporte. (who was later strangled to death)
● Membership in the FLQ became a crime during the October Crisis
● Revolution in Quebec that modernized them
● Raised wages
● Removed restrictions on trade unionism
● Influence of Roman Catholic Church declined
● Took control of social services & educational systems
● October 1970
● Members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross, a British diplomat on October 5
● FLQ kidnapped Quebec labour minister Pierre Laporte on October 10
● War Measures Act was imposed
● On October 16, federal troops were sent in to patrol the streets of Ottawa and Montreal
● Pierre Laporte was found dead
● The kidnappers of James Cross were permitted safe passage to Cuba in return for Cross’s release
● This was the first time that the War Measures Act was enacted during a time of peace.
Official Languages Act
● Pierre Trudeau passed act making Canada a billingual country.
● Federal gov. had to provide services in both languages now
● Founder Réne Lévesque left Liberal party to make Parti Quebecois
● Believed Quebec and Canda would be better off divorcing than staying in a marriage of 2 cultures that to many Quebeckers was no longer workable
● Founder of Parti Quebecois
● Proposal by Quebec nationalists that Quebec should have political independence yet still retain close economic ties and association with Canada
● Process in which changes can be leagally made to the constitution
● Allows government to pass a law even if it violates a specific freedom or right guranteed in charter
Meech Lake Accord
● Offered to recognize Quebec as a distinct society
- Critics (Pierre Trudeau) argued that this would create "two solitudes" in Canada and isolate the Francophones
● All provinces would have the power to veto constitutional change
● Rejected in June 1990
- Aboriginal peoples pointed out that they had a distinct society that needed to be recognized and protected
● Proposed reforming the Senate
● Offered to recognize Quebec as a distinct society
● Supported Aboriginal self-government
● Rejected in a national referendum
- Greatest opposition from BC--giving Quebec too much power
- Voters in Quebec believed that it didn't give them enough power and they feared Aboriginal self-government
● Policy of fostering expression of the cultures of many ethnic groups that make up a country's population
● set down in law for the first time, Ottawa's insistence on a question in any future referendum and a substantial "yes" majority before Quebec's exit from Confederation would be negotiated
● Enacted after the narrow margin of victory in the 1995 referendum
● A Quebec town that decided to expand a golf course into land that Mohawks at the nearby Kanesatake reserve considered sacred.
● Mohawk decided to blockade the land to stop the construction
- Provincial Police was called in to remove the blockade
● On July 11, gunfire broke out and an officer was killed
● As the tense stand-off continued, Quebec Premier called in the Canadian Forces for help
● Negotiations was reached
- The disputed land was purchased by the federal government and given to Kanesatake
● Claims to lands that Aboriginals considerd to be theirs
● There are 2 types of aboriginal claims commonly referred to as "land claims"
○ Specific Claims
○ Comprehensive Claims
● Arose in areas where treaties between Aboriginal peoples and the federal government have been signed, but their terms have not been kept
● First Nations claim to land based on belief that gov. did not fulfill its obligations under a treaty or other agreements related to money, land or other assets
● Arose in ares where no treaties had been signed
● Assertion of the right of Aboriginal nations to large tracts of land because their ancestors were the original inhabitants
● Pierre Trudeau formed the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1968
○ New government body
○ Responsible for boosting foreign aid to less industrialized countries.
○ Countries receiving aid would have to agree to use it to buy products manufactured in Canada; thus, Canada would benefit as well.
What commitments did Canada make by joining NATO?
● When Canada joined NATO, it made a serious commitment.
● It agreed to keep a full army brigade and several air squadrons in Europe
● It built and supplied military bases overseas
● Canadian ships and aircraft tracked the movements of Soviet submarines.
● Canadian forces participated regularly in military exercises with Canada's allies.
● Canada had to adapt its defence policy to those of its allies.
● DEW Line - Distant Early Warning Line
● One of the three lines of radar stations that were built across Canada by the United States to protect against direct Soviet attacks from the air.
○ Stations were constructed between 1950 and 1957.
○ Stations were designed to detect a surprise Soviet attack over the North Pole, giving the United States time to launch a counterattack.
● US military personnel were stationed on Canadian soil and some Canadians felt that this defence system compromised their country’s independence.
○ In order to visit the DEW Line, Canadian members of Parliament and journalists had to fly to New York to get security clearance from US authorities.
○ Most Canadians accepted this loss of independence as the price of added security against an attack from the Soviet Union
General Assembly (United Nations)
● Provides a forum in which member nations can debate issues of concern
● Each member is given a seat and the right to vote on issues
● The UN has three powers it can use against aggressor nations.
○ Moral sanctions - Condemn the aggressor through speeches and resolutions
○ Economic sanctions - Urge other members not to trade with the aggressor
○ Military sanctions - Send in an armed forced.
● In 1950, Commonwealth countries established the Colombo Plan to provide money and aid to less developed countries in the organization
● Canada contributed by inviting overseas students to study in Canada and sending Canadian experts overseas to give technical assistance
● The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty was signed in 1972 to reduce the number of their nuclear weapons.
● This agreement was a breakthrough in relations between the two superpowers.
How successful was SALT I?
● Although it was initially seen as a breakthrough in relations between the two superpowers, the tensions soon rose again.
● In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and sent new medium-range missiles to Eastern Europe
○ In response, NATO announced that it was deploying new, more advanced missiles in Europe as well
○ Many Western nations (ie. Canada) boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow, Russia in protest against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.
● In 1981, the US government announced a massive increase in defence spending-- most of the money would be spent on modernizing the US nuclear arsenal.
● In September 1983, Soviet jets shot down a Korean passenger jet that had strayed into Soviet air space.
● In October 1983, American forces invaded Caribbean nation of Grenada and deposed a pro-Soviet government.
● Conservative leader; became prime minister in September 1984.
● Worked to forge closer links with the US
○ Developed a close personal relationship with US President Ronald Reagan, with whom he shared a similar conservative philosophy.
● Eventually refused to support the development of "Star Wars."
○ Many anti-nuclear groups protested against supporting the project.
● Dismantled FIRA and replaced it with Investment Canada, a body that would encourage suitable foreign investment
● In 1987, he started negotiations that led Canada into the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States.
● In 1985, the US government unveiled an ambitious plan to create a Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) nicknamed "Star Wars"
● A defence shield, part of which would orbit the Earth.
● Had an enormous budget
What were the pros/cons of the Free Trade Agreement?
1. Increased US investment would help Canadian industry to grow and would benefit the whole economy
2. Provides access to the larger US market, which would increase Canada's productivity and growth
3. Larger production runs = lower prices on Canadian products
4. Attracts US firms to Canada to take advantage of our natural resources, skilled workers, and well-planned transportation system.
1. Without protective tariffs, the US branch plants operating in Canada to avoid paying tariffs would return to the US, resulting in the loss of thousands of jobs in Canada-- thus, the FTA would increase unemployment and de-industrialize Canada.
2. Canadian businesses would be unable to compete against giant US companies which were able to flood the Canadian market with cheap goods and services.
3. Threatens Canada's independence-- economic union would lead to pressure for political union, too.
The End of the Cold War
● Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev realized that the Soviet Union could no longer afford its costly arms race with the United States.
○ He proposed massive cuts in the arsenal of both superpowers
● Many economic, social, and political reforms were made in the USSR.
○ Perestroika & Glasnost
○ People of East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Romania demanded similar reforms
● Berlin Wall was demolished in November 1989
● USSR fell apart
● China experimented with reforms, allowing capitalism to flourish in many area of the economy.
○ Chinese people demanded political freedom, but the government responded by attacking students involved in the democracy movement.
● In August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil rich country of Kuwait
● Almost immediately, the UN demanded that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait, and threatened economic sanctions if it refused
○ The US began to demand that military force be used as a last resort to oust Iraqi forces from the country
○ The Americans were joined by a coalition of forces from twenty-seven other countries
● In January 1991, deadline for an Iraqi withdrawal, US and coalition forces began bombarding targets from the air and sea--Operation Desert Storm
● The Gulf War destroyed the Iraqi fighting force and much of the country's infrastructure
● The use of “smart” weapons, such as laser-guided bombs and cruise missiles launched many kilometres from their targets, changed the nature of war
● Canada participated with a squadron of CF-18 fighter bombers, units of the Canadian Army, and ships from the Canadian Navy patrolling the Persian Gulf
What caused globalization?
● Rapid changes in communications technology
○ Internet made it possible to do business online in almost any part of the globe
● The fall of communism
What are the pros of globalization?
● Goods could be easily shipped around the world
● Living standards for everyone, rich and poor, will raise
○ Large corporations will invest in less industrialized countries, creating jobs for many more people and raising standards of living