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Flashcards in Cancers Deck (30)
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Squamous cell lung cancer

PTH-like hormone secretion
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy-long bone pain

Cavitation on CXR

Treatment: surgery and radiation (sugery does not work with metastases)


Adenocarcinoma of the lung

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthorpathy-long bone pain

Peripheral-pleural involvement

Associated with pulmonary scars/fibrosis


Diagnosing Lung Cancer

Obtain: CXR, CT scan, tissue biopsy (determines histologic type)
Always perform a biopsy for intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (specificity is 60%)

CXR-not screening-most important
Stability of an abnormality over a 2 year period is benign

CT scan of chest-useful for staging
Local and distant metastases
nodules less than 1 cm or low probability of being malignant

Cytologic examination of sputum
Central tumors-may still need further tests

PET-distant metastases
nodules greater than 1 cm

Broncoscopy-central tumors
malignancy suspicion intermediate
Risk of surgery is high

Needle biopsy-can also do peripheraal lesions
Invasive-only selected patients
malignancy suspicion intermediate
Risk of surgery is high

resection-malignancy suspicion is high

mediastinoscopy-advanced disease


Small Cell lung Cancer

Ectopic ACTH
Eaton Lambert syndrome

Treatment: Chemo plus radiation
If extensive: just chemo with prophylactic radation


Treatment of CRC

Surgery is only curative treatment

CEA level obtained before surgery-check every 3-6 months

Annual CT scan of abdomen/pelvis and CXR for up to 5 years
Colonscopy at year 1 and every 3 years after that


Hepatocellular adenoma

History of contraceptie use, female sex, and anabolic steroid use

Can lead to hemoperinoteum and hemorrhage
Little malignant potential

Diagnosis: CT scan, ultrasound, or hepatic arteriography (most accurate but invasive)

Treatment: discontinue oral contraceptives
Surgically resect tumors >5 cm that do not regress after discontinuing oral contraceptives


Cavernous hemagioma

Most common type of benign liver tumor

Symptoms: RUQ pain or mass

Complications: hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, coagulopathy, CHF secondary to AV shunt, gastric outlet obstruction

Diagnose: ultrasound or CT scan with IV contrast
Biopsy contraindicated due to risk of rupture

Most do not require treatment


Focal nodular hyperplasia

Tumor (no malignant potential) in women of reproductive age

No association with oral contraceptives

Hepatomegaly may be present

Treatment is not necessary


Hepatocellular carcinoma

Two types:
Nonfibrolamellar-hep B/C and cirrhosis---poor prognosis

Risks: cirrhosis, aflatoxin, vinyl chlroide, thorotrast, AAT deficiency, hemochromo, wilsons, schisto, hepatic adenoma, cigarette, glycogen storage disease

Clinical: abdominal pain (hepatomegaly), portal HTN, ascites, jaundice, splenomegaly
Paraneoplastic: erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, carcinoid, hypertrophic pulmonary osteodystrophy, hypoglycemia, high cholesterol

Diagnosis: liver biopsy-definitive diagnosis
Labs: hepatitis panel, LFTs, coagulation tests
Ultrasound, CT scan (abdomen chest and pelvis), MRI and MRA for surgery
AFP elevation-mointoring response to therapy

Treatment: liver resection
Liver transplantation


Carcinoma of gallbladder

Associated with gallstones

Surgery: cholecystectomy (can be with wedge resection of liver and lymph node dissection)

Low prognosis



Tumor of intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts
Most are adenocarcinomas

Poor prognosis

Risk: primary sclerosis cholangitis
Ulcerative colitis, choledochal cysts, and Clornochis sinensis

Diagnosis: Cholangioraphy (PTC or ERCP)
Stent can be placed to relieve biliary obstruction


Choledochal cysts

Cystic dilatations of biliary tree

Complications: cholangiocarcinoma, hepaic absces, rucurrent cholangitis/pancreatitis, biliary obstruction, cirrhosis, portal HTN

Diagnosis: ultrasound, ERCP is definitive

Treatment: surgery


Pancreatic cancer

Risks: cigarette smoking, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, heavy alcohol use, benzidine, and b-napthylamine

Prognosis is poor

Migratory thrombophelbtis, courvoisiers sign (palpable gallbladder)

ERCP most sensitive
CT preferred
Markers: CA 19-9, CEA

Treatment: whipple procdure only hope for cure
ERCP or PTC with stent placement across the obstruction for palliation


Esophageal Cancer

Squamous cell risks: alcohol and tobacco use, nitrosamines, betel nuts, hot food/tea, HPV, achalasia, Plummer Vinson, caustic ingestion, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma risks: GERD and Barrett's esophagus

Prognosis is poor

Diagnosis: Barium swallow: evaluation of dysphagia
Upper endoscopy with biopsy and brush cytology is definitive diagnosis
Transesophageal ultrasound determines depth of tumor
Full metastatic workup: bone scan, CT scan, CXR

Treatment: palliation
Esophagectomy curative if not spread to local nodes
Chemotherapy plus radiation before surgery have been shown to prolong survival


Gastric Cancer


Risks: atrophic gastritis, H. pylori, pernicious anemia, blood type A, high intake of perserved foods/smoked fish

diagnosis: endoscopy with multiple biopsies can complement with barium sereis
Abdominal CT scan for metastases
Fecal occult blood test

Treatment: surgical resection with wide (5cm) margins with extended lymph node dissection
Chemotherapy may be appropriate


Thyroid solitary nodule

Detection on physical exam=>1 cm in diameter

Malignancy: nodule is fixed during swallowing, unusually firm, irregularity of nodule, solitary nodule, history of radiation therapy, history of rapid development, vocal cord paralysis, cervical adenopathy, elevated calcitonin, family history

Diagnosis: fine needle aspiration is initial evaluation (reliable except follicular)
FNA benign=observation and repeat FNA
FNA malignant: surgery

Thyroid scan: with indeterminate FNA or low TSH
Cold=decreased uptake of radionucletide iodine
Hot= increased uptake

Hot=close observation and periodic thyroid studies

US: differentiates solid from cystic (solid=malignant)
larger than 4 cm are not malignant


Papillary thyroid cancer

Risk: history of radiation to head/neck in childhood

Cervical lymphadenopathy

Positive iodine uptake

Treatment: lobectomy with isthmusectomy
Total thyroidectomy if tumor is >3 cm, bilateral, advanced or distant metastases are present
TSH suppression therapy
Radioiodine therapy for larger tumors


Follicular carcinoma of thyroid

Avidly absorbs iodine

Can have distant metastases

Associated with iodine defieciency

Tumor extension through the tumor capsule-diagnose via tissue sample

Hurthle cell carcinoma subset: abundant cytoplasm, tightly packed mitochondria, oval nuclei with prominent nucloli-radioiodine resistant

Treatment: total thyroidectomy with postoperative iodine ablation


Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Associated with MEN II (screen for pheochromocytoma)

Arises from parafollicular C cells-produces calcitonin

Treatment: total thyroidectomy,
Modified radical neck dissection when lymph node involvement


Anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid


Highly malignant

Arises from long standing follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma

Grim prognosis due to invasion of adjacent organs

Treatment: chemotherapy and radiation
Pallliative care



Tumors of suprasellar region arising from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch

Pituitary adenoma is most common

Bitemporal hemianopsia may be present
Headaches, papilledema and changes in mentation
hyperprolactinemia,, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism

Diagnosis: brain MRI

Treatment: surgical excision with our without radiation therapy



Associated with MEN I

Clinical: sympathetic activation: diaphoresis, palpitations, tremors, high BP, anxiety
Neuroglycopenic symptoms: HA, visual disturbances, confusion, seizures, coma

Diagnosis: 72 hour fast
patient becomes hypoglycemic (normal patients insulin will decrease) insulin levels will be too high
C peptide also elevated

Treatment: surgical resection


Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

High gastrin secreting tumor in pancreatic islet cells

Associated with MEN I

Complications: GI hemorrhage, GI perforation, gastric outleet/obstruction/stricture, metastatic disease (liver)

Clinical: peptic ulcers, diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain

Diagnosis: secretin injection (normally inhibits gastrin) gastrin will increase after secretin
Gastrin >1000

Treatment: PPIs
expoloration for possible curative resection



Clinical: necrotizing migatory erythema, glossitis, stomatitis, diabetes, and hyperglycemia
Low amino acid levels and high glucagon

Treatment: surgery



Poor progonosis

Clinical: gallstones diabetes and steatorrhea



Clinical: watery diarrhea-dehydration, hypokalemia, acidosis
Hyperglycemia and hypercalcemia

Treatment: surgery


Treatment and risks of prostate cancer

Risks: age (most important), african american, high fat diet, positive family history, exposure to herbicides and pesticides

Prostectomy if life expectancy more than 10 years
locally invasive: radiation therapy plus androgen deprivation

Metastatic disease: reduce testosterone
Orchiectomy, antiandrogens, leuprolide, GnRH antagonists (Degarelix)


Renal Cell carcinoma

Risks: cigarettes, phenacetin analgesics, ADKD, chronic dialysis, exposure to heavy met, hypertension

paraneoplastic syndromes: EPO, PTH like hormone, renin, cortisol, or gonadotropins

Diagnosis: renal ultrasound
Abdominal CT if ultrasound shows mass

Treatment: radical nephrectomy (kidney, adrenal, gertoas fascia and nodal tissue along renal hilum)


Bladder Cancer

Risks: cigarette smoking (major), aniline dyes, azo dyes, long term cyclophosphamide

Diagnosis: urinalysis and urine culture to rule out infection
Urine cytology-to detect malignant cells
Cystoscopy and biopsy (definitive test)
Chest radiograph and CT for staging

Treatment: Stage 0: not invasion-intravesical chemo
Stage A: lamina propria invasion-transuretrhal resection of bladder tumor-recurs so frequent cystoscopy
stage B (muscle invasion) and C (perivescular fat invasion): radical cystecomy and removal of prostate/ureterus/ovaries/anterior vagina and urinary diversion
Stage D: metastasis-radical cystecomy and systemic chemo


testicular cancer diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis: testicular mass on physical exam
Testicular ultrasound initial test
B-HCG high in choriocarcinoma
AFP increased in embryonal tumors
CT scan and chest radiograph for staging

Treatment: remove surgically
Perform CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis for staging
perform HCG and AFP for comparison

Seminoma: also radiation
non seminoma: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with or without chemo