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Flashcards in GI treatments Deck (47)
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Familial adenomatous polyposis treatment

Prophylactic colectomy


Treatment of Juvenile polyps

Polyps in children less than 10 years old

Highly vascular and should be removed


Treatment of adenomatous polyps

Removal of polyp


Treatment of diverticulosis

High fiber foods
Psyllium if can't handle bran

If recurrent bleeding perform segmental colectomy


Treatment of diverticulitis

Antibiotics-IV 7-10 days
NPO-IV fluids

Symptoms persist for 3-4 days means surgery may be necessary

Complicated (abscess, colovesical fistula, obstruction, perforation): surgery indicated


Acute mesenteric ishemia treatment

Supportive IV fluids and broad spectrum antibiotics
Direct intra-arterial infusion of papaverine relieves occlusion and vasospasm
Direct intra-arterial infusion of thrombolytics and embolectomy if embolism is etiology
Heparin for venous thrombosis
Surgery if signs of peritonitis develop


Chronic meseneteric ischemia treatment

surgical revascularization


Pseudomembranous colitis treatment

Discontinue offending antibiotic

Metronidiazole-not in infants or pregnancy
oral vanco

Cholestryamine for adjuvant therapy

Toxic megacolon, colonic perforation, anascarca (generalized edema) or electrolyate disturbances may require surgery


Sigmoid and cecal volvulus

Sigmoid: decompression via sigmoidoscopy and elective sigmoid colon resection

cecal: emergent surgery


Treatment of portal hypertension

Transjugular intrahepatic portal-system shunt (TIPS)


Treatment of esophageal varices

Initially: hemodynamic stabilization with fluids

IV ocreotride: splanchnic vasoconstriction and reduces portal pressure
possible IV vasopressin instead of ocreotride

Variceal ligation/banding: initial treatment of choice
Endoscopic sclerotherapy: (higher rates of rebleeding)
Both after emergent upper GI endoscopy

Prophylactic non selective B blocker and IV antibiotics


Treatment of ascites

Bed rest, low-sodium diet, and diuretics (furosemide and spironolactone)
Therapeutic paracentesis if tense ascites, SOB, or early satiety
Peritoneovenous shunt or TIPS to reduce portal HTN


Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

lactulose prevents absorption of ammonia
neomycin: decreases ammonia production by intestinal bacteria
Limit protein to 30-40 g/day


Management of cirrhosis

Surveillance of LFTs
Compensated (vague symptoms: weakness, anorexia and fatigue)
ultrasound and aFP every 6 months, EDG, varices surveillance endoscopy)

Decompensated (jaundice, pruritus, upper GI bleed)
Variceal hemorrhage: non selective B blocker-repeat EGD yearly
Ascites: dietary Na restriction, Diuretics, parancentesis, abstinence
Encephalpathy: lactulose


Treatment of Wilson's disease

Chelating agents: penicillamine

Zinc: prevents uptake of dietary copper
Can be given prophylactically or pregnant patients

Liver transplantation: if unresponsive to therapy or fulminant liver failure


Treatment of hemachromatosis

Repeat phlebotomies

Liver transplantation in advanced cases


Treatment of pyogenic liver abscess

Fatal if untreated

IV antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of abscess

Surgical drainage is sometimes necessary


Amebic liver abscess treatment

IV metronidazole

Therapeutic aspiration of abscess (image guided percutaneous aspiration) if abscess is large or no response to metro


Treatment of budd chiari syndrome

Surgery: balloon angioplasty with stent in IVC
Portocaval shunts

Liver transplantation if cirrhosis is present


Treatment of cholelithiasis

No treatment if asymptomatic
Elective cholecystectomy for recurrent bouts of bilary colic


Treatment of cholecystitis

Conservative measures of hydration with IV fluids, NPO, IV antibiotics, analgesics, correction of electrolyte abnormalities

Surgery: within first 24-48 hours preferred


Treatment of acalculous cholecystitis

Seen in patients with severe iillnesses-trauma, burns, postoperative state, TPN, mechanical ventiation, ischemia, dehydration

Emergent cholecystectomy-if can't do surgery perform percutaneous drainage with cholecystostomy


Treatment of choledocholithiasis

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy and stone extraction with stent placement
laprascopic choledocholithotomy


Treatment of cholangitis

IV antibiotics and IV fluids
Monitor hemodynamics, BP and urine output
Afebrile for 48 hours perform Percutaneous transheptic cholangriography (with catheter drainage) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(with sphinctertomy) for underlying condition
Lapraprotomy (T-tube insertion)
Perform emergently if patient does not respond to antibiotics


Treatment of porcelain gallbladder

Prophylactic cholecystectomy (can develop cancer of the gallbladder)


Treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis

Curative: liver transplantation
dominant stricture causing cholestasis: ERCP with stent placement for biliary drainage can relieve symptoms
Cholestyramine for symptomatic relief (decreases pruritus)


Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis

Symptomatic for pruritus: cholestyramine
Osteoprosis: calcium, vit D, bisphosphonates

Ursodeoxycholic acid slows progression

Liver transplantation is curative


Acute appendicitis treatment

Appendectomy within 24 hours


Acute pancreatits treatment

IV fluids-correct electrolytes
Pain-meperidine or fentanyl

30% of pancreas necrotic=antibiotics

3-4 of ransons criteria should be in ICU


Treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst

less than 5 cm=observation
greater than 5 cm=drain percutaneously or surgically