T/F: Ovarian Remnant Syndrome is more common in cats than dogs
T/F: Adult onset vaginitis is primarily seen in intact bitches
Adult onset vaginitis is primarily seen in bitches that were spayed before their 1st estrous
Abortion in the bitch with Brucella canis is most likely due to:
B. canis uses prefers the metabolic pathway for the breakdown of erythritol, which is found in the placenta
Abortion due to Brucella canis occurs late in gestation in the dog along with what other species?
Brucella canis causes ________ in the male dog
Will present with swollen testicles and swollen epididymis. (Epididymitis is more commonly seen than orchitis)
It is important to test all dogs with ________ for canine brucellosis
- May try to culture semen, but may be too painful for ejaculation
- Ultrasound to differentiate from other issues (neoplasia)
- Usually treat by castration and antibiotics...
T/F: The Rapid Slide Agglutination test is very sensitive, but not specific for Brucella
- Very sensitive (accurate when neg) but not specific (accurate when pos) – positive may be other organism
- 95-99% accurate when neg, 20-50% false positive
Describe some prevention techniques for Brucella canis
- Test all new additions 3x before introducting to the population
Test all breeding animals annually to biannually (females prior to breeding)
- AI can decrease male exposure
A breeding dog has a unilaterally swollen epididymis with normal testes. You tested the dog for Brucella canis and the test came back negative. What would you recommend to the client?
- Retest the dog for Brucella canis in a month
- The dog is okay for breeding
- The dog should be immediately castrated
- Vaccinate the dog
Retest the dog for Brucella canis in a month
T/F: Mycoplasma is a normal inhabitant in the reproductive tract of most female dogs
May be normal inhabitant in female reproductive tract in up to 60% of dogs (May also be in males)
What is the treatment of choice for Mycoplasma in dogs?
Doxycycline (5-8 mg/kg PO BID)
T/F: The critical window for exposure of a naïve bitch to Canine Herpesvirus is 3 weeks pre-partum to prevent infection of the pups
Critical window: Last three weeks of pregnancy and first three weeks of neonatal life
You are presented with a dam, which normally produces nice and healthy offspring. Today she produces a litter of puppies that are crying, producing greenish stool, and showing abdominal pain, you suspect fading puppy syndrome. What can confirm the in utero infection with canine herpes virus (CHV) in these puppies?
- Intranuclear inclusion bodies (INIB) on histopathology
- Positive AGID test
- Positive PCR test
- Positive RCAT test
Intranuclear inclusion bodies (INIB) on histopathology
T/F: Canine Herpesvirus has no effect on subsequent litters in a bitch who has been exposed
Testicular descent into the scrotum should be seen within _____ days
Both testicles should be descended into the scrotum by 16 weeks age, but not considered cryptorchid till 6 months
Both testicles should be descended into the scrotum by 16 weeks of age, but not considered cryptorchid until ________
T/F: Cryptorchidism in the dog is hereditary
(sex-limited autosomal recessive gene)
Treatment of choice for testicular torsion is:
Autoantibodies against testicular tissue may begin to form as soon as 4 h after the onset of testicular torsion
What is the most common testicular tumor seen in dogs?
Sertoli Cell Tumor
Also bilateral in 45% of cases! - may be associated with feminizing caused by estrogen secretion
What are the three most common testicular tumors seen in dogs?
Sertoli (44%), Seminoma (31%), Leydig (25%)
T/F: Sertoli cell tumors cause atrophy of the opposite testis
How do you diagnose incomplete ejaculation in the dog?
ALP (alkaline phosphatase) in seminal fluid (<5000 U/L)
Incomplete ejaculation is a cause of azoospermia in dogs
How do you diagnose testicular neoplasia in the dog?
physical examination, testicular ultrasound, testicular biopsy
Testicular neoplasia is a cause of azoospermia in dogs
T/F: Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a cause of azoospermia in dogs
TVT does not typically affect sperm production
These lesions were found on a dog in St. Kitts. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT)
Transmitted by contact to mucous membranes (mouth, genitals, etc..)
What breed of dog is genetically pre-disposed to the condition pictured below?
- The picture shows urethral prolapse
- Idiopathic or sexual arousal induced
- Pathognomonic “red pea” appearance at tip penis
- Tx: surgical removal of prolapsed tissue (urethropexy - pictured below)
__________ is the most commonly diagnosed prostatic disease in dogs
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Disease of older, intact male dogs – mean age at onset ~8 yrs (can occur in castrated males treated with androgens)
Clinical Signs – may be asymptomatic, serous to serosanguineous urethral discharge is primary complaint (unassociated with urination), hematuria, rectal tenesmus, dysuria, caudal abdominal pain and infertility
- Constipation with characteristic ribbon-like flat feces
Persistent erection is termed:
Dog usually has a neurological problem that causes it
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is observed in ___% of intact stud dogs more than 5 years old
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is observed in 60% of intact stud dogs more than 5 years old
__________ is the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis in dogs
Castration is treatment of choice
A 5-year-old dog presents with ribbon-like flat feces and dysuria. You take radiographs and note prostatic enlargement. After performing a prostatic wash, you observe these cells.
What is your most likely diagnosis?
benign prostatic hyperplasia
What is the most common drug used for treatment of BPH in dogs?
5a-reductase inhibitor - blocks the action of testosterone and/or dihydrotestosterone. Not generally a lifelong treatment but need 3-4 months before decreasing dose
The definitive and preferred treatment for prostatic hypertrophy is castration!