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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (35):
1

DVT prophylaxis on flights

Anti-embolism stockings
-no need to give aspirin

2

Causes of Torsades de pointes

Hypomagnesia
Hypokalaemia
Hypothermia

3

Management of torsades de pointes

IV magnesium sulphate

4

Treatment of asymptomatic first degree heart block

No treatment needed

5

Most common congenital heart defect found in adulthood

Atrial septal defect

6

What is bad about having an atrial septal defect in adulthood?

Can allow a clot to pass from the venous system to the left side and cause a stroke

7

How might atrial myxoma present?

Fever of unknown cause

8

Which valve usually affected in endocarditis in drug user?

Tricuspid valve

9

What is takayasu's areteritis associated with?

Renal artery stenosis

10

DVLA post-MI?

Cannot drive for 4 weeks
(if stent inserted I think perhaps 1 week)

11

JVP and inspiration?

JVP falls during inspiration

12

Kussmaul's sign positive?

When the JVP doesn't fall on inspiration
- seen in constrictive pericarditis

13

Alcohol and warfarin?

Chronic alcoholism increases the metabolism of warfarin
(i.e. INR will be low, might have to increase dose)

14

Why is leviteracetam good?

Does not have an effect on the cytochrome P450 system

15

When should you take a statin?

Last thing in the evening - majority of cholesterol synthesis takes place at night

16

Inferior MI and aortic regurgitation murmur

Consider proximal aorta dissection

17

Which antibiotic can cause QT prolongation?

Clarithromycin
-long QT can trigger polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

18

What is Sydenham's chorea?

Complication of Group A -beta haemolytic strep (e.g. rheumatic fever)
Presents with abnormal movements e.g. facial muscles and arm movements

19

This drug commonly causes thrombophlebitis

Amiodarone

20

Half-life of amiodarone?

20-100 days

21

Why can amiodarone cause arrhythmias?

Prolongs QT interval

22

Amiodarone and warfarin?

Amiodarone decreases the metabolism of warfarin

23

What do you need to do when INR <2?

Need immediate anticoagulation e.g. with LMWH

24

What type of diuretic should you use in hypertension?

Should use indapemide instead of thiazide-like diuretics

25

Normal left ventricular ejection fraction?

55-70%
(may be reduced in dilated cardiomyopathy)

26

What can you measure following acute anaphylaxis?

Can measure serum tryptase

27

How does nicorandil work?

Potassium channel activator

28

Side effects of nicorandil

Headache
Flushing
Anal ulceration

29

Statin monitoring

LFTs at baseline, 3 months and 1 year

30

Which organism causes rheumatic fever?

Strep pyogenes

31

Adenosine half life

10 seconds

32

What helps decide whether glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists should be used?

High GRACE risk score and whether a percutaneous intervention is going to be performed

33

What ECG changes are associated with Wolff-Parkinson white syndrome?

Short PR interval and delta waves

34

CXR finding in coarctation of the aorta?

Rib notching is present in about 70% adults with coarctation of the aorta

35

Investigation essential when investigating PE?

Must do CXR to rule out other pathologies