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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (676)
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1

effect of valsalva early strain(2)

decrease venous return
decrease all murmurs except HCM and MVP

2

effect of valsalva late release(2)

increase venous return
increase right sided murmurs

3

effect of standing(2)

decrease venous return
similar to the strain phase of valsalva

4

effect of squatting(3)

increase venous return
increase afterload by kinkingof femoral arteries
increase reverse flow

5

effect of handgrip(3)

increase afterload
increase blood pressure
increase reverse flow across valve

6

murmurs getting louder with valsalva(2)

HCM
MVP

7

why during valsalva murmur get louder in MVP (2)

decrease left ventricular volume
increase of leaflet prolapse

8

why during valsalva murmur get louder in HCM (2)

decrease left ventricular volume
increase gradient

9

effect of standing resembles what other effect

valsalva

10

murmurs that get louder with squatting(3)

aortic regurgitation
mitrel regurgitation
VSD

11

murmurs that get softer with squatting(2)

HCM
MVP

12

why murmurs get softer with squatting in HCM (4)

more blood less murmur
increase preload
decrease gradient across outflow obstruction
decrease obstruction and decrease afterload

13

why murmurs get softer with squatting in MVP(2)

increase left ventricular size
decrease mitral valve leaflets prolapse

14

murmurs getting louder with handgrip(3)

aortic regurgitation
mital regurgitation
VSD

15

murmurs getting softer with handgrip(3)

HCM
increase gradient across outflow obstruction
decrease flow

16

auscultation in mitral valve prolapse(2)

single or multiple non ejection clicks
plus
mid to late systolic of mitral regurgitation

17

CHF with ejection fraction a 55 dx

diastolic dysfunction

18

number 1 cause of diastolic dysfunction

HTA

19

rx of diastolic dysfunction(2)

diuretics
antihypertensives

20

physiopatho in diastolic dysfunction

impaired ventricular filling due to poor myocardial relaxation or diminished ventricular compliances

21

cause of AFIB in diastolic dysfunction(3)

left ventricular dilation
leads to left atrial dilation
which in turn causes atrial fibrillation

22

HTA in the setting of bilateral nontender masses

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

23

HTA in the setting of bilateral nontender masses best test to do

abdomen ultrasonogram

24

clue for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease(5)

HTA
Hematuria
proteinuria
palpable renal masses
progressive renal insufficiency

25

flank pain in autosomal polycystic kidney disease cause(3)

renal calculi
cyst rupture or hemmorrage
upper urinary tract infection

26

the early common finding in autosomal polycystic kidney disease

HTA

27

extra renal manif of autosomal polykidney disease(5)

cerebral aneurisms
hepatic and pancreatic cysts
cardiac valve disorder
colonic diverticulosis
ventral and inguinal hernias

28

management of APKD(3)

follow blood pressure and renal function
aggressive control of cardiovascular risks factors
ACE inhibitor for HTA

29

end stage renal diasease in APKD(2)

dyalisis
renal transplant

30

patient with HTA is seen in consultation in history , he exercices regularly an eats low salt diet .but he drinks 3-4 glasses of wine every day and 6-8 beers on week end .he quits smoking 3 years ago next step in management of HTA in this patient

counsel for reduction of alcohol