Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (35):
what is isolated systolic hypertension?
systolic pressure >160 with a diastolic pressure <90
what initial labs should be drawn with a hypertensive patient
fasting lipid profile
A ratio of aldosterone to plasma reinin activity (PRA) greater than what is suggestive of primary aldosteronism.
if a patient presents w/ HTN, hypokalemia and difficult to control BP what should they be evaluated for?
how are aldosterone levels attempted to be suppressed?
high sodium diet
If a patient has difficult to control BP, spells of palpitations, HA and marked elevated BP what should be suspected?
What test is highly sensitive for pheochromocytomas?
What are diastolic pressures <65 associated with?
increased stroke risk
IV meds for hypertensive emergencies
labetalol (alpha/ beta blocker)
fenoldopam (dopamine-1 agonist)
when should antihypertensive meds be started in patients who don't attain BP goals w/ lifestyle changes?
after 6-12 months of nonpharm therapy
ADR of diuretics
ADRs of ACE inhibitors
ADR of beta blockers?
bradycardia sexual dysfunction
what is an alpha-2 agonist used for BP?
what are alpha-1 antagonists?
what is used to treat primary aldosteronism?
aldosterone antagonist (sprionolactone)
most commonly affected valvues for valvular heart disease
aortic and mitral
aortic valvue disease is more common in what sex?
most common cause of valvular heart disease?
do stenotic valvular lesions lead to pressure overload or volume overload?
symptoms seen with aortic stenosis
dysnpea (from LV systolic/ diastolic dysfunction)
symptoms seen w/ aortic regurgitation
foreceful heartbeat/ palpitations (increased LV stroke volume)
what valvular condition can present w/ exertional dyspnea, palpitations, hemoptysis
what valvular disease present with a systolic, crescendo-decresendo at upper sternal border?
what valvular problems presents with a diastolic rumbe at LV apex?
what valvular condition presents w/ holosytolic murmur at LV apex that radiates to axilla?
what type of valvular problems presents with a decrescendo diastolic "blow" parasteneral
what are some peripheral manifestations of increased pulse pressure (associated w/ aortic regurgitation)
pulsatile flow in nail beds
rapidly rising falling carotid pulse
Diagnostic studies for valvular heart diseases
treatment for mitral stenosis
heart rate control (beta blockers or CCB)
treatment for acutely symptomatic mitral regurg
afterload reduction- nitroprusside or hydralazine
treatment for aortic regurgitation
afterload reduceion w/ ACEI or CCB
what signals the development of tight mitral stenosis
short S2 to OS interval, prolonged diastolic murmur, left arterial enlargement
what toxicity should be considered in patients presenting w/ a-fib w/ regular ventricular response?