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Flashcards in Neuro Problems Deck (46):
1

2 main elements needed for MS diagnosis

dissemintaiton of CNS lesions in both space and time

2

what happens with MS?

demyelinating event in teh DNS

3

what lesions are present w/ MS and how are they seen?

Cerebral of spinal plaque with adiscrete region of demyelination w/ relative presevation of axons . Seen w/ MRI

4

what is found in the CSF of people w/ MS?

oligoclonal bands

5

clinical presentation of MS

parethesiasis in upper and lower extremities
monocular vision loss (due to optic neuritis)
Diploplia (internuclear opthalmoplegia0
ataxia, intention tremor (cerebellar involvement)
urinary difficulties
memory loss, personality changes

6

type of MS w/ attacks followed by complete remission

relapsing-remitting

7

Type of MS where the dz is gradually worsening

secondary progressive

8

type of MS that presents later in life and has a steadily progressive course

primary progressive

9

MS type where patients have laregely progressive dz exacerbated by acute attacks and little remission

relapsing progressive

10

first line therapy for acute attack of MS

high does parenteral corticosteroids

11

does pregnant women w/ MS experience more or fewer symptoms

fewer, they are usually symptom free during pregnancy

12

presents with flat, uniformly hyperpigmented macules that ppear during the first year and after birth, suggested by the presence of 6 or more. Can also have optic pathway glioma (by age 3 usually)

Neurofibromatosis type 1

13

raised, often pigmented hamartomas of the iris that are a specific finding for neurofibromatosis type 1. They don't affect vision

LIsch nodules

14

what causes myasthenia gravis?

antibody-mediated, T-cell dependent immunologic attack directed at proteins in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction

15

most common presenting symptom of myathenis gravis

ptosis and/or diplopsia

16

other symptoms of myasthenia gravis

dysarthria
dysphagia
fatigable chewing

17

first line therapy for myasthenia gravis

AchE inhibitiors (pyridostigmine)

18

what surgery can help patients w/ myasthenia gravis

thymectomy (if they don't have mUSK antibody- associated MG w/o thyoma)

19

3 main symptoms of Parkinson's

tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity

20

what type tremor is seen w/ parkinson's

pill-rolling, rest tremor, most noticeable when body isn't engaed in purposeful activities

21

when do you see a tremor w/ essential tremor?

when the affected limb is being used

22

Partial seizure with preserved consciousness

Simple

23

Simple partial seizure resulting in rhythmic motor activity

Jacksonian

24

Characterized by repetitive automatisms and impaired consciousness.

Complex partial

25

2 types of generalized seizure

Tonic-clonic
Absence

26

What type seizure is an aura associated with

Simple partial seizure

27

what does a diagnosis of dementia require?

memory loss and at least oen other cognitive dysfunction (aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, disturbances of executive function)

28

Dementia results from ischemic injury

vascular dementia

29

dementia due to intraneuronal inclusions w/ aggregations of synaptic protein (alpha-synuclein)

Lewy Body Dementia

30

presents w/ gait abnormality, incontinence and dementia

normal pressure hydrocephalus

31

dementia characterized by fluctuation of cognitiion (drowsiness, staring into space, diorganized speech) visual hallucinations, parkinsonism

Lewy body dementia

32

confirmatory score of dementia on MMSE

24 out of 30 (or less)

33

Tx of normopressure hyrdocephalus

placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt

34

mainstay of medical treatment for AD

cholinesterase inhibitors

35

NMDA receptor blocker used for dementia

memantine

36

what drug may frontal temporal dementia respond to

trazodone

37

druation of a migraine

4-72 hours

38

HA with unilateral, retroorbital sharp or knife-like pain. often occur w/ lacrimation and nasal congestion

cluster HA

39

thunderclap HA, worst HA of my life

SAH

40

acute tx for migraine HA

triptans

41

prevention tx for migraines

propranolol, amitriptyline

42

acute tx for tesnsion HA

APAP, apsiring

43

prevention tx for tension HA

amitriptyline

44

acute tx for cluster HA

oxygen, triptan

45

Prevention tx for cluster HA

verapamil

46

what color with CSF be with a SAH

yellow discoloration- indicative of hemorrhage or there will be RBCs