Flashcards in Hematology/ Oncology Deck (34):
median age for breast cancer
54 years old
Risk factors for breast cancer
late age of first pregnancy
most common compliant in patient w/ breast cancer
asymptomatic breast mass
how many patients w/ intraductal cancer peresent
unilateral nipple discharge
does a normal mammo rule out malignancy?
for patients younger than 35 what is the best form of imaging for a breast complaint?
when should women start getting mammograms annually?
what is an antiestrogen used in women w/ steroid receptor-positive tumors?
what drugs are another hormonal treatment for postmenopausal women w/ steroid receptor-positive breast cancer. they block the conversion of androgens to estrogens.
aromatase inhibitiors (anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane)
what are 2 main ADRs of tamoxifen?
what chemo drugs can cause hemorrhagic cystitis
what chemo drugs can cause cardiomyopathy?
what ADR can taxanes cause (paclitaxel or docetaxel)?
what is a monocloncal antibody against HER-2/neu?
where are common sites of metastasis of breast cancer?
bone (back pain, hypercalcemia)
brain (seizures, HA)
lung (dyspnea, cough)
liver (abdominal complaints)
median age for prostate cancer?
how is most prostate cancer detected?
screening PSA tests
what is the cut-off for a normal PSA?
10 is highly suspicious
what is the definitive diagnosis for prostate cancer?
transrectal prostate biopsy
what score system is prostate cancer graded on?
the higher the score (2-10) the more poorly differentiated
Tx for prostate cancer
androgen deprivation therapy
complications of prostatectomy
hormonal therapy for prostate cancer
orchiectomy (removes sourced or testosterone)
what are some lutenizing hormone-rlease hormone agonists that supress LH release by providing continuous stimulation
What drug class should be given with LH releasing hormone agonists to prevent a flare in the disease and induce a complete androgen blockage
flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide
What type of leukemia is the philadelphia chromosome associated with?
CML (translocation of chromosome 9 and 22)
what can myelodysplastic syndrome lead to?
symptoms of acute leukemia
Constitutional- fever, malaise
infection, bone pain, HA, CN palsies
HOw many CLL present?
painless adenopathy or splenomegaly
what is a pathognomic cell seen with AML
Auer rod (bluish red rod seen in the blast cell)
Definitive diagnosis for leukemia
bone marrow biopsy
what is the most common type of leukemia?
how will CML often present?
elevated WBC and splenomegaly