Hematology/ Oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology/ Oncology Deck (34):
1

median age for breast cancer

54 years old

2

Risk factors for breast cancer

early menarche
late menopause
family hx
late age of first pregnancy
nulliparity

3

most common compliant in patient w/ breast cancer

asymptomatic breast mass

4

how many patients w/ intraductal cancer peresent

unilateral nipple discharge

5

does a normal mammo rule out malignancy?

No

6

for patients younger than 35 what is the best form of imaging for a breast complaint?

US

7

when should women start getting mammograms annually?

40

8

what is an antiestrogen used in women w/ steroid receptor-positive tumors?

tamoxifen

9

what drugs are another hormonal treatment for postmenopausal women w/ steroid receptor-positive breast cancer. they block the conversion of androgens to estrogens.

aromatase inhibitiors (anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane)

10

what are 2 main ADRs of tamoxifen?

uterine cancer
thromboembolism

11

what chemo drugs can cause hemorrhagic cystitis

cyclophosphamide

12

what chemo drugs can cause cardiomyopathy?

doxorubicin

13

what ADR can taxanes cause (paclitaxel or docetaxel)?

peripheral neuropathy

14

what is a monocloncal antibody against HER-2/neu?

trastuzumab (Herceptin)

15

where are common sites of metastasis of breast cancer?

bone (back pain, hypercalcemia)
brain (seizures, HA)
lung (dyspnea, cough)
liver (abdominal complaints)

16

median age for prostate cancer?

68

17

how is most prostate cancer detected?

screening PSA tests

18

what is the cut-off for a normal PSA?

10 is highly suspicious

19

what is the definitive diagnosis for prostate cancer?

transrectal prostate biopsy

20

what score system is prostate cancer graded on?

Gleason
the higher the score (2-10) the more poorly differentiated

21

Tx for prostate cancer

Surgery
radiation therapy
androgen deprivation therapy

22

complications of prostatectomy

impotence
urinary incontinence

23

hormonal therapy for prostate cancer

orchiectomy (removes sourced or testosterone)

24

what are some lutenizing hormone-rlease hormone agonists that supress LH release by providing continuous stimulation

goserelin
leuprolide
triptorelin

25

What drug class should be given with LH releasing hormone agonists to prevent a flare in the disease and induce a complete androgen blockage

nonsteroidal antiandrogens
flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide

26

What type of leukemia is the philadelphia chromosome associated with?

CML (translocation of chromosome 9 and 22)

27

what can myelodysplastic syndrome lead to?

AML

28

symptoms of acute leukemia

Constitutional- fever, malaise
bleeding (thrombocytopenia)
infection, bone pain, HA, CN palsies

29

HOw many CLL present?

painless adenopathy or splenomegaly

30

what is a pathognomic cell seen with AML

Auer rod (bluish red rod seen in the blast cell)

31

Definitive diagnosis for leukemia

bone marrow biopsy

32

what is the most common type of leukemia?

CLL

33

how will CML often present?

elevated WBC and splenomegaly

34

what trug is a BRC-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can treat CML

imatinib