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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (42):
1

Classic ECG finding in AFlutter

"Sawtooth" P Waves

2

Define Unstable Angina

Angina that is new, is worsening, or occurs at rest

3

Antihypertensive for diabetic patient with proteinuria

ACEI

4

Beck's triad for cardiac tamponade

Hypotension, distant heart sounds, and JVD

5

Drugs that slow heart rate

B-Blockers, Calcium channel blockers, digoxin, amiodarone

6

HLD tx that leads to flushing and pruritus

Niacin

7

Murmur- Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

A systolic ejection murmur heard along the lateral sternal border that increased with decreased preload (Valsalva maneuver)

8

Murmur - Aortic Insufficiency

Austin Flint murmur, a diastolic, decrescendo, low-pitched, blowing murmur that is best heard sitting up; increases with increased afterload (handgrip maneuver)

9

Murmur - Aortic Stenosis

A systolic crescendo/decrescendo murmur that radiates to the neck; increased with increased preload (squatting maneuver)

10

Murmur - Mitral Regurgitation

A holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla; increased with increased afterload (handgrip maneuever)

11

Murmur - Mitral Stenosis

A diastolic, mid to late, low-pitched murmur preceded by an opening snap

12

Tx for Afib and Aflutter

If unstable, cardiovert. If stable or chronic, rate control with CCbs or B-Blockers

13

Tx for Vfib

Immediate cardioversion

14

Dressler's Syndrome

An autoimmune rxn with fever, pericarditis, and increased ESR occurring 2-4 weeks post-MI

15

IV drug use with JVD and holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border. Tx?

Tx existing heart failure and replace the tricuspid valve

16

Dx test for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Echocardiogram (showing a thickened left ventricular wall and outflow obstruction)

17

Pulsus paradoxus

A decreased in systolic BP of >10 mmHg with inspiration; seen in cardiac tamponade.

18

Classic ECG findings in pericarditis

Low-voltage, diffuse ST-segment elevation

19

Define HTN

BP > 140/90 on 3 separate occasions 2 weeks apart

20

8 surgically correctable causes of HTN

Renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, pheochromocytoma, Conn's syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, unilateral renal parenchymal dz, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism

21

Evaluation of pulsatile abdominal mass and bruit

Abdominal U/S and CT

22

Indications for surgical repair of AAA

>5.5 cm, rapidly enlarging, symptomatic, or ruptured

23

Tx for ACS

ASA, heparin, clopidogrel, morphine, O2, sublingual nitro, IV B-Blockers

24

Metabolic syndrome

Abd obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL. HTN, insulin resistance, prothrombotic or proinflammatory states

25

Appropriate dx test: 50-y/o man w/ stable angina can exercise to 85% of max predicted heart rate

Exercise stress treadmill with ECG

26

Appropriate dx test: 65 y/o woman with LBBB, and severe OA has unstable angina

Pharmacologic stress test (eg. dobutamine echo)

27

Target LDL in pt w/ diabetes

28

Signs active ischemia during stress testing

Angina, ST-segment changes on ECG, or decreased BP

29

ECG findings suggesting MI

ST-segment elevation (depression means ischemia), flattened T waves, and Q waves

30

Coronary territories inMI

Anterior wall (LAD/diagonal), Inferior (PDA), posterior (left circumflex/oblique, RCA/marginal), septum (LAD/diagonal)

31

A young pt w/ angina at rest and ST-segment elevation with normal cardiac enzymes

Prinzmetal's angina

32

Common sx a/w silent MIs

CHF, shock, AMS

33

Dx test for PE

Spiral CT w/ contrast

34

Protamine

Reverse the effects of heparin

35

Prothrombin time

Coagulation parameter affected by warfarin

36

A young pt w/ a family hx of sudden death collapses and dies while exercising

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

37

Endocarditis prophylaxis regimens

Oral surgery - amoxicillin for certain situations; GI or GU procedures - not recommended

38

Virchow's triad

Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage

39

MCC of HTN in young women

OCPs

40

MCC of HTN in young men

Excessive EtOH

41

Figure 3 sign

Aortic coarctation

42

Water-bottle-shaped heart

Pericardial effusion. Look for pulsus paradoxus