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Flashcards in Emergency Medicine Deck (37):
1

Class of drugs that may cause syndrome of muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and extrapyramidal sx

Antipsychotics (neuroleptic malignant syndrome)

2

Side effects of corticosteroids

Acute mania, immunosuppression, thin skin, osteoporosis, easy bruising, myopathies

3

Treatment for DTs

Benzodiazepines

4

Tx for acetaminophen overdose

N-acetylcysteine

5

Tx for opioid overdose

Naloxone

6

Tx for benzodiazepine overdose

Flumazenil

7

Tx for neuroleptic malignant syndrome and malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

8

Tx for malignant hypertension

Nitroprusside

9

Tx of atrial fibrillation

Rate control, rhythm conversion, and anticoagulation

10

Tx of supraventricular tachycardia

If stable, rate control w/ carotid massage or other vagal stimulation; if unsuccessful, consider adenosine

11

Causes of drug-induced SLE

INH, penicillamine, hydralazine, procainamide, chlorpromazine, methyldopa, quinidine

12

Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia w/ neurologic sx

B12 deficiency

13

Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia w/o neurologic sx

Folate deficiency

14

A burn pt presents w/ cherry-red, flushed skin and coma. SaO2 is normal, but carboxyhemoglobin is elevated. Tx?

Treat CO poisoning with 100% O2 or with hyperbaric O2 if poisoning is severe or the pt is pregnant

15

Blood in the urethral meatus or high-riding prostate

Bladder rupture or urethral injury

16

Test to r/o urethral injury

Retrograde cystourethrogram

17

Radiographic evidence of aortic disruption or dissection

Widened meiastinum (>8 cm), loss of aortic knob, pleural cap, tracheal deviation to the right, depression of left main stem bronchus

18

The most common organism in burn-related infections

Pseudomonas

19

Method of calculating fluid repletion in burn patients

Parkland formula: 24-hour fluids = 4 x kg x % BSA

20

Acceptable urine output in a trauma patient

50 cc/hr

21

Acceptable urine output in a stable patient

30 cc/hr

22

Signs of neurogenic shock

Hypotension and bradycardia

23

Signs of increased ICP (Cushing's triad)

Hypertension, bradycardia, and abnormal respirations

24

Decreased CO, decreased PCWP, Increased peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)

Hypovolemic shock

25

Decreased CO, Increased PCWP, Increased PVR

Cardiogenic (or obstructive) shock

26

Increased CO, Decreased PCWP, Decreased PVR

Septic or anaphylactic shock

27

Tx of septic shock

Fluids and abx

28

Tx of cardiogenic shock

Identify cause; pressors (eg, dopamine)

29

Tx of hypovolemic shock

Identify cause; fluid and blood repletion

30

Tx of anaphylactic shock

Diphenhydramine or epinephrine 1:1000

31

Supportive tx for ARDS

Continuous positive airway pressure

32

Signs of air embolism

A patient w/ chest trauma who was previously stable suddenly dies

33

Absent breath sounds, dullness to percussion, shock, flat neck veins

Massive hemothorax

34

Absent breath sounds, tracheal deviation, shock, distended neck veins

Tension pneumothorax

35

Tx for blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma in hemodynamically unstable pts

Immediate exploratory laparotomy

36

Increased ICP in alcoholics or the elderly following head trauma. Can be acute or chronic; crescent shape on CT

Subdural hematoma

37

Head trauma w/ immediate loss of consciousness followed by a lucid interval and then rapid deterioration. Convex shape on CT

Epidural hematoma