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Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (34):
1

4 causes of microcytic anemia

TICS - Thalessemia, Iron deficiency anemia, anemia of Chronic dz, and Sideroblastic anemia

2

An elderly man w/ hypochromic, microcytic anemia is asx. Dx tests?

Fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy; suspect colorectal CA

3

Precipitants of hemolytic crisis in pts with G6PD deficiency

Sulfonamides, antimalarial drugs, fava beans

4

Most common inherited cause of hypercoagulability

Factor V Leiden mutation

5

Most common inherited bleeding disorder

von Willebrand's dz

6

Most common inherited hemolytic anemia

Hereditary spherocytosis

7

Dx test for hereditary spherocytosis

Osmotic fragility test

8

Pure RBC aplasia

Diamond-Blackfan anemia

9

Anemia a/w absent radii and thumbs, diffuse hyperpigmentation, café au lait spots, microcephaly, and pancytopenia

Fanconi's anemia

10

Medications and viruses that lead to aplastic anemia

Chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, radiation, HIV, chemotherapeutic agents, hepatitis, parvovirus B19, EBV

11

How to distinguish polycythemia vera from 2` polycythemia

Both have increased Hct and RBC mass, but polycythemia vera should have normal O2 sat and low epo levels

12

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) pentad

FAT RN: Fever, Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal dysfxn, Neurologic abnormalities

13

HUS triad?

Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure

14

Tx for TTP

Emergent large-volume plasmapheresis, corticosteroids, antiplatelet drugs. Platelet transfusion is contraindicated!

15

Tx for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children

Usually resolves spontaneously; may require IVIG and/or corticosteroids

16

Which of the following are increased in DIC: fibrin split products, D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets, and hct.

Fibrin split products and D-dimer are elevated; platelets, fibrinogen, and hct are decreased

17

An 8 y/o boy presents w/ hemarthrosis and increased PTT w/ normal PT and bleeding time. Dx? Tx?

Hemophilia A or B; consider desmopression (for hemophilia A) or factor VIII or IX supplements

18

A 14 y/o girl presents w/ prolonged bleeding after dental surgery and w/ menses, normal PT, normal or increased PTT and increased bleeding time. Dx? Tx?

von Willebrand's dz; tx w/ desmopression (DDAVP), FFP, or cryoprecipitate

19

A 60 y/o African American man presents w/ bone pain. What might a workup for multiple myeloma reveal?

Monoclonal gammopathy, Bence Jones proteinuria, and "punched-out" lesions on xray of the skull and long bones

20

Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

21

A 10 y/o boy presents w/ fever, wt loss, and night sweats. Exam shows an anterior mediastinal mass. Suspected dx?

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

22

Microcytic anemia with decreased serum iron, decreased TIBC, and normal or increased ferritin

Anemia of chronic dz

23

Microcytic anemia with decreased serum iron, decreased ferritin, and increased TIBC

Iron deficiency anemia

24

An 80 y/o man presents w/ fatigue, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and isolated lymphocytosis. What is the suspected dx?

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

25

Lymphoma equivalent of CLL

Small lymphocytic lymphoma

26

Late, life-threatening complication of CML

Blast crisis (fever, bone pain, splenomegaly, pancytopenia)

27

Auer rods on blood smear

AML

28

AML subtype a/w DIC. Tx?

M3. Retinoic acid.

29

Electrolyte changes in tumor lysis syndrome

Decreased Ca2+, increased K+, increased phosphate, increased uric acid

30

50 y/o man presents w/ early satiety, splenomegaly, and bleeding. Cytogenetics show t(9,22). Dx?

CML

31

Heinz bodies

Intracellular inclusions seen in thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, and postsplenectomy

32

Virus a/w aplastic anemia in pts w/ sickle cell anemia

Parvovirus B19

33

25 y/o African American man w/ sickle cell anemia has sudden onset of bone pain. Management of pain crisis?

O2, analgesia, hydration, and, if severe, transfusion

34

A significant cause of morbidity in thalassemia pts. Tx?

Iron overload; use deferoxamine.