Pulmonary Flashcards Preview

Step 2 Rapid Review > Pulmonary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (26):
1

Risk factors for DVT

Stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability (Virchow's triad)

2

Criteria for exudative effusion

Pleural/serum protein >0.5; pleural/serum LDH >0.6

3

Causes of exudative effusion

Think of leaky capillaries. Malignancy, TB, bacterial or viral infection, PE w/ infarct, and pancreatitis.

4

Causes of transudative effusion

Think of intact capillaries. CHF, liver or kidney dz, and protein-losing enteropathy.

5

Normalizing PCO2 in a patient having an asthma exacerbation may indicate?

Fatigue and impending respiratory failure

6

Sarcoidosis

Dyspnea, lateral hilar lymphadenopathy on CXR, noncaseating granulomas, increased ACE, and hypercalcemia

7

PFTs of obstructive pulmonary dz

Decreased FEV1/FVC

8

PFTs of restrictive pulmonary dz

Increased FEV1/FVC. Decreased TLC.

9

Honeycomb pattern on CXR. Tx?

Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Supportive care; steroids may help

10

Treatment for SVC syndrome

Radiation

11

Treatment for mild persistent asthma

Inhaled B-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

12

Treatment for COPD exacerbation

O2, bronchodilators, abx, corticosteroids w/ taper, smoking cessation.

13

Treatment for Chronic COPD

Smoking cessation, home O2, B-agonits, anticholinergics, systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines

14

Acid-base disorder in PE

Respiratory alkalosis w/ hypoxia and hypocarbia

15

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) a/w hypercalcemia

Squamous cell carcinoma

16

Lung cancer a/w SIADH

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

17

Lung cancer highly related to cigarette exposure

SCLC

18

A tall Caucasian man presents w/ acute SOB. Dx? Tx?

Spontaneous pneumothorax. Spontaneous regression; supplemental O2 may be helpful.

19

Tx for tension pneumothorax

Immediate needle thoracostomy

20

Characteristics favoring carcinoma in an isolated pulmonary nodule

Age > 45-50; lesions new or larger in comparison to old films; absence of calcification or irregular calcification; size > 2 cm; irregular margins

21

ARDS

Hypoxemia and pulmonary edema w/ normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)

22

Sequelae of asbestos exposure

Pulmonary fibrosis, pleural plaques, bronchogenic carcinoma (mass in lung field), mesothelioma (pleural mass)

23

Increased risk of what infection w/ silicosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

24

Causes of hypoxemia

Right-to-left shunt, hypoventilation, low inspired O2, tension, diffusion deffect, V/Q mismatch

25

Classic CXR findings for pulmonary edema

Cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vessels, Kerley B lines, "bat's-wing" appearance of hilar shadows, and perivascular and peribronchial cuffing

26

Westermark's sign and Hamptom's hump

CXR findings suggestive of PE