Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (26):
Risk factors for DVT
Stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability (Virchow's triad)
Criteria for exudative effusion
Pleural/serum protein >0.5; pleural/serum LDH >0.6
Causes of exudative effusion
Think of leaky capillaries. Malignancy, TB, bacterial or viral infection, PE w/ infarct, and pancreatitis.
Causes of transudative effusion
Think of intact capillaries. CHF, liver or kidney dz, and protein-losing enteropathy.
Normalizing PCO2 in a patient having an asthma exacerbation may indicate?
Fatigue and impending respiratory failure
Dyspnea, lateral hilar lymphadenopathy on CXR, noncaseating granulomas, increased ACE, and hypercalcemia
PFTs of obstructive pulmonary dz
PFTs of restrictive pulmonary dz
Increased FEV1/FVC. Decreased TLC.
Honeycomb pattern on CXR. Tx?
Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Supportive care; steroids may help
Treatment for SVC syndrome
Treatment for mild persistent asthma
Inhaled B-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids
Treatment for COPD exacerbation
O2, bronchodilators, abx, corticosteroids w/ taper, smoking cessation.
Treatment for Chronic COPD
Smoking cessation, home O2, B-agonits, anticholinergics, systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines
Acid-base disorder in PE
Respiratory alkalosis w/ hypoxia and hypocarbia
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) a/w hypercalcemia
Squamous cell carcinoma
Lung cancer a/w SIADH
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
Lung cancer highly related to cigarette exposure
A tall Caucasian man presents w/ acute SOB. Dx? Tx?
Spontaneous pneumothorax. Spontaneous regression; supplemental O2 may be helpful.
Tx for tension pneumothorax
Immediate needle thoracostomy
Characteristics favoring carcinoma in an isolated pulmonary nodule
Age > 45-50; lesions new or larger in comparison to old films; absence of calcification or irregular calcification; size > 2 cm; irregular margins
Hypoxemia and pulmonary edema w/ normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)
Sequelae of asbestos exposure
Pulmonary fibrosis, pleural plaques, bronchogenic carcinoma (mass in lung field), mesothelioma (pleural mass)
Increased risk of what infection w/ silicosis?
Causes of hypoxemia
Right-to-left shunt, hypoventilation, low inspired O2, tension, diffusion deffect, V/Q mismatch
Classic CXR findings for pulmonary edema
Cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vessels, Kerley B lines, "bat's-wing" appearance of hilar shadows, and perivascular and peribronchial cuffing